Pharmacometrics models with hidden Markovian dynamics

AbstractThe aim of this paper is to provide an overview of pharmacometric models that involve some latent process with Markovian dynamics. Such models include hidden Markov models which may be useful for describing the dynamics of a disease state that jumps from one state to another at discrete times. On the contrary, diffusion models are continuous-time and continuous-state Markov models that are relevant for modelling non observed phenomena that fluctuate continuously and randomly over time. We show that an extension of these models to mixed effects models is straightforward in a population context. We then show how the forward –backward algorithm used for inference in hidden Markov models and the extended Kalman filter used for inference in diffusion models can be combined with standard inference algorithms in mixed effects models for estimating the parameters of the model. The use of these models is illustrated with tw o applications: a hidden Markov model for describing the epileptic activity of a large number of patients and a stochastic differential equation based model for describing the pharmacokinetics of theophyllin.
Source: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 69Author(s): Fereshteh Keikhaei, Mohammad Ali Mirshekar, Mohammad Reza Shahraki, Alireza DashipourAbstractTemporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) causes impairment in learning and memory by causing neurological damage. Using the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of myricitrin (MYC), the present study was conducted in order to investigate the neuroprotection effects of MYC in kainic acid (KA) induced- TLE experimental model.Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: 1: Sham, 2: MYC, 3: TLE (epileptic group), 4: VA + TLE (valproic acid and KA ...
Source: Learning and Motivation - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
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Source: Neuroscience Research - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions and clinical implicationsThese results may support ongoing debates assuming the initial low performance in the memory of L-TLE patients to be directly related with left hippocampal-temporal tissue loss irrespective of epileptic activity. The discovery of the ALF phenomenon explains that standard memory tests are unable to detect memory loss in some patients who are experiencing a significant level of problems with forgetfulness in their daily lives.
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that people with epilepsy who die from SUDEP in New Zealand are young and are often compliant with their medication. We plan to establish a nationwide SUDEP registry using the EpiNet database to determine the incidence of SUDEP in New Zealand, and to track changes in SUDEP rates. We are also planning to take part in an international case-control study of SUDEP in the hope that we might learn more about risk factors that predispose people with epilepsy to SUDEP, and factors that might reduce the risk. PMID: 31945043 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Discussion: ATLo is not inferior to ATLe for patients with drug-resistant temporal epilepsy. There was no significant difference in seizure outcomes or the rate of postoperative complications between the two groups. A large sample randomized control study is needed. PMID: 31939712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurological Research - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research
Authors: Lee SK, Lee EJ, Kwun KH, Kim TJ, Lee SK PMID: 31942772 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
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