Emphasis on Repair, Not Just Avoidance of Injury, Facilitates Prudent Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy

Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SAbR) is a potent, hypofractionated treatment against cancer which puts adjacent normal tissue in potential peril. Accurate delineation of normal tissue injury risks from SAbR has been challenging, and lack of clear understanding of SAbR tolerance continues to limit its potential. In this review, we contend that SAbR effects on normal tissue could be akin to a surgical “wound,” and that adequate wound repair of organs at risk is an essential component of effective SAbR therapy.
Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research

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ConclusionThese approaches can be potentially used to follow-up populations exposed to genotoxic agents and assess cancer risk.Graphical abstract
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: GSK-3 and related kinases in cancer, neurological and other disorders edited by James McCubrey, Agnieszka Gizak and Dariusz Rakus.
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent advances in prostate cancer (PCa) genetics.Recent FindingsUpwards of 20% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate tumors (mCRPC) carry homologous recombination (HR) repair gene mutations, of which ~  10% are germline (inherited). Another ~ 5% exhibit microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and/or mismatch repair deficiency (MMRd). Pembrolizumab is approved for tumors with MMRd, thus patients with mCRPC and MMRd are candidates for pembrolizumab. Emerging data indicate that platinum chemotherapy a nd poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are effective...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: ANXA7 knockdown increased the radiosensitivity of NPC by enhancing apoptosis, modulating the cell cycle distribution into more radiosensitive phases, promoting DNA damage, and inhibiting repair. We showed that decreased ANXA7 levels enhanced radiosensitivity and provided insights into the therapeutic targets for NPC radiotherapy. PMID: 31958076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cancer Biomarkers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Biomark Source Type: research
Increased rates of locoregional recurrence are observed in patients with basal-like breast cancer (BC) despite the use of radiation therapy (RT); therefore, approaches that result in radiosensitization of basal-like BC are critically needed. Using patients’ tumor gene expression data from 4 independent data sets, we correlated gene expression with recurrence to find genes significantly correlated with early recurrence after RT. The highest-ranked gene, TTK, was most highly expressed in basal-like BC across multiple data sets. Inhibition of TTK by both genetic and pharmacologic methods enhanced radiosensitivity in mul...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: We provided evidence that ARID2 knockout could contribute to disruption of NER process through inhibiting the recruitment of XPG, resulting in susceptibility to carcinogens and potential hypermutation. These findings have far-reaching implications for therapeutic targets in cancers harboring ARID2 mutations.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
antsev Buzdin Carcinogenesis is linked with massive changes in regulation of gene networks. We used high throughput mutation and gene expression data to interrogate involvement of 278 signaling, 72 metabolic, 48 DNA repair and 47 cytoskeleton molecular pathways in cancer. Totally, we analyzed 4910 primary tumor samples with individual cancer RNA sequencing and whole exome sequencing profiles including ~1.3 million DNA mutations and representing thirteen cancer types. Gene expression in cancers was compared with the corresponding 655 normal tissue profiles. For the first time, we calculated mutation enrichment values...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractCancer predisposition syndromes are associated with an increased risk of developing primary malignancies. Here we discuss those which are associated with an increased risk of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These can be grouped into those in which the CNS tumors predominate versus those in which the GI cancers predominate. The former include constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome, Li –Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), and Cowden syndrome (CS) while the latter include familial adenomatosis polyposis 1 (FAP1), Lynch syndrome and polymerase proofreading-asso...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Achieving replicative immortality is a crucial step in tumorigenesis and requires both bypassing cell cycle checkpoints and the extension of telomeres, sequences that protect the distal ends of chromosomes during replication. In the majority of cancers this is achieved through the enzyme telomerase, however a subset of cancers instead utilize a telomerase-independent mechanism of telomere elongation—the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway. Recent work has aimed to decipher the exact mechanism that underlies this pathway. To this end, this pathway has now been shown to extend telomeres through exploitat...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Ovarian cancer (OC) accounts for more than 150,000 deaths worldwide every year. Patients are often diagnosed at an advanced stage with metastatic dissemination. Although platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapies are effective treatment options, they are rarely curative and eventually, the disease will progress due to acquired resistance. Emerging evidence suggests a crucial role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the response to therapy in OC. Transcriptome profiling studies using high throughput approaches have identified differential expression patterns of lncRNAs associated with disease recurrence. Furthermore, severa...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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