A caspase-independent way to kill cancer cells
Nature Cell Biology 19, 1014 (2017). doi:10.1038/ncb3604 Authors: Brent E. Fitzwalter &Andrew Thorburn Cancer treatments often focus on killing tumour cells through apoptosis, which is thought to typically require mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and subsequent caspase activation. A study now shows that MOMP can trigger TNF-dependent, but caspase-independent cell death, suggesting a different approach to improve cancer therapy.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that SirT1 regulates apoptosis and radiation sensitization in lung cancer cell lines A549 and H460 via the SirT1/NF- κB/Smac pathway.Cell Physiol Biochem 2018;48:304 –316
Conclusion: Molecular mechanism and clinical efficacy of some of the emerging molecular targets for cancer chemotherapy have been briefly reviewed in the present article.
Cardiorenal complications of immune checkpoint inhibitors, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41581-018-0035-1Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have led to a paradigm shift in cancer therapy; however, these agents can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in off-target organs. This Review describes the mechanism of action of ICI therapies and how these agents induce irAEs in the kidney and heart.
Bullous disorders associated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy are increasingly reported and may pose distinct therapeutic challenges. Their frequency and impact on cancer therapy are not well established.
Intratumoral androgen biosynthesis is one of the mechanisms involved in the progression of prostate cancer, and an important target for novel prostate cancer therapies. Using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and genome-wide RNA sequencing, we have analyzed androgen concentrations and androgen-regulated gene expression in cancerous and morphologically benign prostate tissue specimens and serum samples obtained from 48 primary prostate cancer patients. Intratumoral dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations were significantly higher in the cancerous tissues compared to benign prostate (P
Abstract Throughout various eras of breast cancer therapy, postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) has played an important role in the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer. PMRT decreases locoregional recurrence and may improve overall survival in patients with tumors over 5 cm or positive lymph nodes. As novel cancer therapies improve survival in breast cancer, the role of radiation therapy is evolving. Individualized recommendations for PMRT dependent on pathologic response after neoadjuvant systemic therapy are under investigation. This review summarizes the role of PMRT during breast cancer therapy...
(MedPage Today) -- With immune checkpoint inhibition, rheumatic adverse events may become more common than RA
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017Source: Materials TodayAuthor(s): Emily Reiser Evans, Pallavi Bugga, Vishwaratn Asthana, Rebekah DrezekAbstractCancer immunotherapy, or the utilization of the body’s immune system to attack tumor cells, has gained prominence over the past few decades as a viable cancer treatment strategy. Recently approved immunotherapeutics have conferred remission upon patients with previously bleak outcomes and have expanded the number of tools available to treat cancer. Nanoparticles – including polymeric, liposomal, and metallic formulations – naturally traffic to th...
In this study, we identified pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) as a direct target of HCA by use of biochemical methods including affinity chromatography, drug affinity responsive target stability, and cellular thermal shift assay. PKM2 is up-regulated in multiple cancer types and is considered as a potential target for cancer therapy. HCA binds directly to PKM2 and selectively decreases the phosphorylation of PKM2 at Tyr105, indicating a potential anti-proliferative effect on prostate cancer cells.
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Journal of Molecular LiquidsAuthor(s): Samira Malekmohammadi, Hassan Hadadzadeh, Zahra AmirghofranAbstractThe purpose of this study is to develop a targeted drug delivery system containing folic acid-conjugated dendritic amino mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DFMSNs) loaded with a cyclometallated gold(III) complex, [Au(bzpy)Cl2] (bzpy = 2-benzylpyridine), as a cytotoxic agent (Au(drug)@DFMSNs). The products, including the Au(III) complex, DFMSNs, and Au(drug)@DFMSNs, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron micro...