Comprehension in proficient readers: The nature of individual variation
This study was conducted to determine which abilities are central to explaining comprehension and which are secondary to other abilities. A battery of psycholinguistic and cognitive tests was administered to community college and university students. Seven constructs were identified: word decoding, working-memory capacity (WMC), general reasoning, verbal fluency, perceptual speed, inhibition, and language experience. Only general reasoning and language experience had direct effects; these two variables accounted for as much variance in comprehension as did the complete set. Direct effects of WMC and decoding were found only when general reasoning and language experience were deleted from the models. The authors question the need to include WMC in our theories of variability in adult reading comprehension and highlight the need to understand precisely how vocabulary facilitates comprehension.
Edgardo Sepulveda, Andrei N. Lupas
Cory Schwartz, Keith Frogue, Joshua Misa, Ian Wheeldon
Carole Pfister, St éphane Bourque, Odile Chatagnier, Annick Chiltz, Jérôme Fromentin, Diederik Van Tuinen, Daniel Wipf, Nathalie Leborgne-Castel
Xue-Ying Tian, Cheng-Sheng Zhang
Guangshan Yao, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Xiuna Wang, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
Hany S. Zinad, Inas Natasya, Andreas Werner
Majdiah Othman, Arbakariya B. Ariff, Leonardo Rios-Solis, Murni Halim
ConclusionsA MEL‐A2 with novel composition and surface activities was efficiently produced from a novel MEL producer. This is the first report on production of MEL‐A2 as the major product and from soybean oil. The biosurfactant has potential application as a wetting agent and oil‐in‐water emulsifier. Significance and Impact of the StudyDiscovery of novel structures and novel strains is valuable for further commercial development and application of MELs. Sporisorium sp. aff. sorghi SAM20 can be considered as a potential candidate for commercial production of biosurfactants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. The phosphodiesterase VieA regulates gene expression by modifying the intracellular cyclic diguanylate pool. This article reveals the differential regulation of VieA in Vibrio cholerae O1 biotypes. Expression of VieA is repressed by the nucleoid‐associated protein H‐NS and the LysR‐type regulator LeuO in classical biotype V. cholerae, and by H‐NS and the quorum sensing regulator HapR in the El Tor biotype.
We describe approaches for back‐calculating model parameter estimates and their standard errors from available summary statistics with various techniques, including approximate Bayesian computation. We propose to use a quadratic approximation to the log‐likelihood for each historical trial based on 2 independent terms for the log mean rate and the log of the dispersion parameter. A Bayesian hierarchical meta‐analysis model then provides the posterior predictive distribution for these parameters. Simulations show this approach with back‐calculated parameter estimates results in very similar inference as using parame...