Blood-filtering organs fight infections that enter through the skin

(Penn State) New information about how and where the innate immune system fights off viral infections that enter through the skin could lead to better treatments for viruses like Zika, dengue and measles, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers. The innate immune system is the body's first line of defense, providing broad protection as opposed to the specific immune system which targets the specific threat.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 010 Peer Reviewer: Dr Jennifer Ho, ID physician QLD, Australia You are an ED doc working in Perth over schoolies week. An 18 yo man comes into ED complaining of fever, rash a “cracking headache” and body aches. He has just hopped off the plane from Bali where he spent the last 2 weeks partying, boozing and running amok. He got bitten by “loads” of mosquitoes because he forgot to take insect repellent. On e...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine arthralgia dengue fever rash Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Marco Tulio Angulo, Jorge X. Velasco-HernandezAbstractWe will inevitably face new epidemics where the lack of long time-series data and the uncertainty about the outbreak dynamics make difficult to obtain quantitative predictions. Here we present an algorithm to qualitatively infer time-varying contact rates from short time-series data, letting us predict the start, relative magnitude and decline of epidemic outbreaks. Using real time-series data of measles, dengue, and the current zika outbreak, we demonstrate our algorithm can outperform existing...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Abstract Respiratory and arthropod-borne viral infections are a global threat due to the lack of effective antivirals and vaccines. A potential strategy is to target host proteins required for viruses but non-essential for the host. To identify such proteins, we performed a genome-wide knockout screen in human haploid cells and identified the calcium pump SPCA1. SPCA1 is required by viruses from the Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families, including measles, dengue, West Nile, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Calcium transport activity is required for SPCA1 to promote virus spread. SPCA1 regulates pr...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research
Abstract The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses. With its compact surf...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 23 Author(s): Estefania Fernandez, Michael S Diamond The epidemic emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015–2016 has been associated with congenital malformations and neurological sequela. Current efforts to develop a ZIKV vaccine build on technologies that successfully reduced infection or disease burden against closely related flaviviruses or other RNA viruses. Subunit-based (DNA plasmid and modified mRNA), viral vectored (adeno- and measles viruses) and inactivated viral vaccines are already advancing to clinical trials in humans after successfu...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our research identified a novel 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one analog (compound 7), as a potent antiviral agent for vaccinia virus, and heterocyclic chalcone analog (compound 9) as a broad spectrum antiviral agent. PMID: 28359234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Med Chem Source Type: research
AbstractTo assess the possible circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) prior to the first documented case in Mexico, we reanalyzed the stored samples from the states of Veracruz and Yucat án, which were originally collected to test for dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) but were negative for these viruses despite the symptomatology. The samples were originally collected between the 30 and 46 epidemiological weeks (EW) when the ZIKV was not yet declared as a Public Health Emergenc y of International Concern (PHEIC). From the total 4016 negative samples, a total of one hundred samples, 50 from Veracruz (CHIK− DENV&m...
Source: Virus Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract Vaccines for neuroinfectious diseases are becoming an ever-increasing global health priority, as neurologic manifestations and sequelae from existing and emerging central nervous system infections account for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. The prevention of neurotropic infections can be achieved through globally coordinated vaccination campaigns, which have successfully eradicated nonzoonotic agents such as the variola viruses and, hopefully soon, poliovirus. This review discusses vaccines that are currently available or under development for zoonotic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, includi...
Source: Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Rio de Janeiro is expecting about 500,000 visitors for the Olympic and Paralympic games this August. If you’re one of them, there are a few things you need to consider in order to have a safe, happy and healthy trip to Brazil this year.   1. Make sure you’re up to date on all your vaccines. This is travel safety 101. Infectious disease loves a crowd, and one way to make sure a nasty bug doesn't hitch a ride with you is to get vaccinated.  What to do:  Make an appointment with a travel doctor now to make sure you’re current on all your regular vaccines (measles, mumps, rubella, etc.) an...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
Discussion We applied simple phenomenological models applied to surveillance data of Zika cases from Antioquia, Colombia, to forecast the size of the Zika epidemic and evaluate the reproduction number within the first two disease generations. Using the GRM model that incorporates the possibility of sub-exponential growth dynamics22, we were able to generate reasonable forecasts of epidemic size within 22% of observed values based on 30 days of epidemic data. By contrast, the logistic growth model consistently underestimated the epidemic size and was not able to capture the early growth phase of the Zika epidemic, which exh...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
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