Early insights into Zika ‘s microcephaly physiopathology from the epicenter of the outbreak: teratogenic apoptosis in the central nervous system

Abstract Fetal infection by the Zika virus has been implicated in the exceptional rise in the number of microcephalic newborns recorded by the end of 2015 in Brazil. The mechanism by which this teratogenic effect is produced in the developing brain has not been fully established. Very early in the outbreak, we addressed this question by evaluating available initial data from a gestational and postnatal clinical investigation in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the subtractive dysmorphic brain malformations observed in Zika‐related microcephaly are primarily due to the massive induction of apoptosis of neuroprogenitor cells. We designed a physiopathological algorithm based on the examination of the following medical findings: epidemiological data, ultrasound images, computed tomography scans, placental tissue, cerebral fluid analysis, eye fundoscopy, neurological examination and necroscopy findings.
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-ZIKV IgG prevalence in blood donors from the Northeast region of the S ão Paulo State, Brazil, which experienced a ZIKV outbreak in 2016.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Authors: Maniero VC, Rangel PSC, Coelho LMC, Silva CSB, Aguiar RS, Lamas CC, Cardozo SV Abstract A progressive increase in the circulation of arboviruses in tropical countries has been observed, accounting for 700,000 yearly deaths in the world. The main objective of this article was to identify the presence of Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses in immature stages of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Household collections of immature phases of the vectors were carried out in the years 2015 and 2016. A total of 2902 dwellings were visited and the rate of infestation with larvae and pupae of ...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research - Category: Research Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: Aedes albopictus is responsible for the current outbreaks. The spread of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus increases the risk of the autochthonous transmission of these viruses. Although native species could contribute to their transmission, more studies are still needed to assess that risk.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In conclusion, the author of this paper mentioned that immunization gap needs to be handle systematically. Immunization data released on 2017 showed that complete immunization was given only to 20% of targeted group, while almost 75% were either unvaccinated or unknown. During the outbreak of diphteria in Indonesia, the WHO also reported several countries with similar problem such as Bangladesh, Haiti and Yamen. It was shown that a coordination between doctors in clinic/hospital with public health officer to conduct an epidemiological investigation, in conjunction with giving prophylaxis and assuring the logistics of anti-...
Source: Acta medica Indonesiana - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Acta Med Indones Source Type: research
This study describes the efforts and outcomes associated with the establishment of a clinical sample repository during the 2016 Zika virus epidemic. To overcome the challenge of limited access to clinical samples to support diagnostic test development, multiple US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) agencies formed a partnership to create the HHS Zika Specimen Repository. In 2016-2017, the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collected patient specimens (4420 convalescent sera aliquots from 100 donors and 7171 plasma aliquots from 239 donors), c...
Source: Public Health Reports - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rep Source Type: research
Authors: Villanueva J, Schweitzer B, Odle M, Aden T Abstract The Laboratory Response Network (LRN) was established in 1999 to ensure an effective laboratory response to high-priority public health threats. The LRN for biological threats (LRN-B) provides a laboratory infrastructure to respond to emerging infectious diseases. Since 2012, the LRN-B has been involved in 3 emerging infectious disease outbreak responses. We evaluated the LRN-B role in these responses and identified areas for improvement. LRN-B laboratories tested 1097 specimens during the 2014 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus outbreak, 180 sp...
Source: Public Health Reports - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rep Source Type: research
Authors: Heberlein-Larson L, Gillis LD, Morrison A, Scott B, Cook M, Cannons A, Quaye E, White S, Cone M, Mock V, Schiffer J, Lonsway D, Petway M, Otis A, Stanek D, Hamilton J, Crowe S Abstract The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas in 2015 and its association with birth defects and other adverse health outcomes triggered an unprecedented public health response and a demand for testing. In 2016, when Florida exceeded state public health laboratory capacity for diagnostic testing, the state formed partnerships with federal and commercial laboratories. Eighty-two percent of the testing (n = 33 802 of 41&t...
Source: Public Health Reports - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rep Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Michael Basic, Fabian Elgner, Daniela Bender, Catarina Sabino, Marie-Luise Herrlein, Hanna Roth, Mirco Glitscher, Alicia Fath, Thomas Kerl, Hans-Günther Schmalz, Eberhard HildtAbstractZika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging virus belonging to the family of Flaviviridae, which contains several human pathogens. A great deal of attention came through the association of ZIKV infection with an increasing number of microcephaly cases in newborns during the 2016 outbreak in Brazil. Currently, no anti-viral drug or vaccine is available.Houttuyno...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging virus belonging to the family of Flaviviridae, which contains several human pathogens. A great deal of attention came through the association of ZIKV infection with an increasing number of microcephaly cases in newborns during the 2016 outbreak in Brazil. Currently, no anti-viral drug or vaccine is available. Houttuynoids are a group of structurally related flavonoid glycosides that can be isolated from Houttuynia cordata belonging to the family of Sauraceae. Moreover, H. cordata was described to have an antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), human immu...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: The outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil, the associated complication of microcephaly, and the evolving understanding of virus transmission created significant uncertainty for NZ Olympic team members. The proactive approach taken by the health team to the mitigation of risk, combined with the anticipated low risk of arbovirus transmission over the period of the games, resulted in enhanced confidence from team members and no reports of positive serology.
Source: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Practical Management Source Type: research
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