The Jeremiah Metzger Lecture Cancer in the Twenty-First Century: An Inside View from an Outsider.

The Jeremiah Metzger Lecture Cancer in the Twenty-First Century: An Inside View from an Outsider. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2017;128:275-297 Authors: Benz EJ Abstract Cancer is not a single disease. The term refers to literally hundreds of illnesses sharing common features: inappropriate proliferation of imperfectly differentiated cell types, invasion of nearby vital structures, and spread to distant sites (metastasis). Invasiveness and metastasis distinguish cancers from benign tumors such as fibroids and meningiomas. Yet, each type is distinct, possessed of defining morphologic, histologic, biochemical, and genomic features that have allowed oncologists to develop a nosology that guides diagnosis and therapy. Cancer is thus a complex collection of disorders. That complexity is increasing exponentially as modern technologies allow us to dissect each form in ever greater detail. The notion of curing cancer with a "magic bullet" like the polio vaccine is no more realistic than using the same wrench to fix a bicycle, a car, and an airliner just because they are all vehicles. PMID: 28790513 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research

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Transformations aren’t just for people or pets around Halloween. Scientific images also can look different than you might expect, depending on how they’re photographed. Check out these tricky-looking images and learn more about the science behind them. Credit: Nilay Taneja, Vanderbilt University, and Dylan T. Burnette, Ph.D., Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Do you have a hunch about what this image is? Perhaps something to do with dry leaves? It’s a human fibroblast cell undergoing cell division, or cytokinesis, into two daughter cells. Cytokinesis is essential for the growth and...
Source: Biomedical Beat Blog - National Institute of General Medical Sciences - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Cells Biofilms Cellular Imaging Cool Images Source Type: blogs
Abstract Vaccines are one of the most successful public health interventions in our history resulting in eradication of small pox, near eradication of polio and major reductions in case number and global morbidity and mortality for numerous diseases (Centers for Disease C, 1999) [1]. However, vaccine development has been less successful against complex infectious diseases, where pathogen variability and/or immune evasion mechanisms have combined to pose major obstacles, and have been unsuccessful against non-communicable diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases (K...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is small DNA tumor virus of monkey origin. This polyomavirus was administered to human populations mainly through contaminated polio vaccines, which were produced in naturally-infected SV40 monkey cells. Previous molecular biology and recent immunological assays have indicated that SV40 is spreading in human populations, independently from early SV40-contaminated vaccines. SV40 DNA sequences have been detected at higher prevalence in specific human cancer specimens, such as brain and bone tumors, malignant pleural mesotheliomas and lymphoproliferative disorders, compared to corresponding normal tissu...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
PMID: 31266790 [PubMed - in process]
Source: cmaj - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: CMAJ Source Type: research
(CNN) — The US Food and Drug Administration approved a treatment Friday for a genetic disease called spinal muscular atrophy that causes infants’ muscles to waste away, potentially killing them before age 2. And then came the price tag: $2.125 million for a one-time treatment. The gene therapy, called Zolgensma, will be marketed by AveXis, whose parent company is Novartis. “Today’s approval marks another milestone in the transformational power of gene and cell therapies to treat a wide range of diseases,” Dr. Ned Sharpless, the FDA’s acting commissioner, said in a statement Friday. &ldqu...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Novartis Source Type: news
A young boy in Pakistan receives an oral polio vaccine (OPV). Over the last 30 years huge progress has been made against polio and it is now only endemic in 2 countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan, with only 33 cases confirmed cases last year. Credit: Ashfaq Yusufzai/IPSBy Tharanga YakupitiyageUNITED NATIONS, May 1 2019 (IPS) Since the introduction of vaccines, diseases such as measles and polio were quickly becoming a thing of the past. However, the world’s progress on immunisation is now being threatened. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 85 percent of the world’s children received basic va...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Featured Global Headlines Health IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse North America Population Regional Categories TerraViva United Nations diptheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) human papillomavirus (HPV) Measles Vaccines World Health Organ Source Type: news
Eun-Ju Ko, Sabrina Helmold Hait, Gospel Enyindah-Asonye, Mohammad Arif Rahman, Tanya Hoang and Marjorie Robert-Guroff* Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States Inducing strong mucosal immune responses by vaccination is important for providing protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). A replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant vector (Ad5hr) expressing SIV proteins induced mucosal immune responses in rectal tissue associated with delayed SIV acquisition in female rhesus macaques, but the initial mechanisms leading to the induced immu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that in the presence of an HIV-1 infection, the cellular distribution of FcγRIIIa is altered and that the functional consequence of FcγRIIIa variant is affected. Importantly, it underscores the need to characterize FcγR expression, cellular distribution and functional consequences of FcγR genetic variants within a specific environment or disease state. Introduction Receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulin G (IgG), so called Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), link the specificity of IgG with potent effector functions of the innate immune system. Fc&ga...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study it was assumed that there was no immunity following resolution of natural infection. The modeling demonstrated that a vaccine of moderate efficacy could have a significant impact on the prevalence of gonorrhea if strategically implemented (23). While encouraging it does, of course, depend on the availability of a vaccine. From Ecological Data to Evidence The epidemiological evidence from Cuba, Brazil, and New Zealand demonstrates that N. meningitidis OMV vaccines are possibly able to provide some broader protection against meningococcal disease (17, 24), particularly in older children and adults (25). These...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Poliovirus sequences in the human genome may contribute to programmed cell death and lysis of colorectal cancer cells. A recombinant poliovirus, incapable of reverting to neurovirulence, might be given orally at intervals as a colorectal cancer vaccine to prevent colorectal cancer.
Source: Cancer Genomics and Proteomics - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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