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Microbiota-activated PPAR-{gamma} signaling inhibits dysbiotic Enterobacteriaceae expansion

Perturbation of the gut-associated microbial community may underlie many human illnesses, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are poorly understood. We found that the depletion of butyrate-producing microbes by antibiotic treatment reduced epithelial signaling through the intracellular butyrate sensor peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR-). Nitrate levels increased in the colonic lumen because epithelial expression of Nos2, the gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase, was elevated in the absence of PPAR- signaling. Microbiota-induced PPAR- signaling also limits the luminal bioavailability of oxygen by driving the energy metabolism of colonic epithelial cells (colonocytes) toward β-oxidation. Therefore, microbiota-activated PPAR- signaling is a homeostatic pathway that prevents a dysbiotic expansion of potentially pathogenic Escherichia and Salmonella by reducing the bioavailability of respiratory electron acceptors to Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen of the colon.
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology r-articles Source Type: news

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Abstract ObjectivePathogenic contamination of cosmetics intended to be applied on or around the eye area, including make‐up removers, may lead to severe eye infections. To assess the efficacy of antimicrobial preservatives in these products, we investigated the survival and detection of Bacillus cereus F 4227A spiked into make‐up removers, alone and in the presence of other relevant micro‐organisms. MethodsFour brands of make‐up removers, A, B, C and D, were challenged three times (day 0, day 7 and day 14) using B. cereus, in pure and mixed cultures, at a final concentration of 5 log CFU per mL of Bacillus cereus o...
Source: International Journal of Cosmetic Science - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017 Source:Research in Microbiology Author(s): Natasha Weston, Prateek Sharma, Vito Ricci, Laura J.V. Piddock Bacterial multidrug efflux systems are a major mechanism of antimicrobial resistance and are fundamental to the physiology of Gram-negative bacteria. The resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family of efflux pumps is the most clinically significant, as it is associated with multidrug resistance. Expression of efflux systems is subject to multiple levels of regulation, involving local and global transcriptional regulation as well as post-transcriptional and post-transl...
Source: Research in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the distribution ofSalmonella in two commercial layer farms and to determine the genetic relatedness between these strains. TheSalmonella isolates were serotyped by slide agglutination using commercial antisera and analyzed for genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).ResultsThe internal environment had the highest prevalence ofSalmonella (14/15, 93.3%), followed by external environment (60/96, 62.5%) and egg samples (23/84, 27.3%). The prevalence ofSalmonella in the environment was significantly higher than that in egg samples (p 
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Authors: Horie M, Koike T, Sugino S, Umeno A, Yoshida Y Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the probiotic and the prebiotic-like properties of Bacillus subtilis BN, a spore-forming bacterium, also known as "natto-kin", which is used for making the Japanese fermented food, natto. We used the spores and vegetative cells of this strain and compared their effects on the growth of lactobacilli. Culture supernatant from B. subtilis BN was added to a glucose-free MRS medium used to culture lactobacilli. When lactobacilli were cultured in the supernatant-containing medium, growth was improved. This ef...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research
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Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Abstract Acute gastroenteritis (GE) has a major impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet comprehensive data regarding infectious agents including enteroviruses are scarce. We hypothesized that enteroviruses constitute a significant cause of acute GE. We analyzed 677 stool samples from 504 patients, which had been submitted for suspected infectious GE. 0.2 ml of stool suspension was extracted using the Abbott m2000 sp robot and analysed by multiplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) using the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) as well as by specific NATs detecting enteroviruses and polioviruse...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
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Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Science Selection Source Type: research
France has ordered banned the sale and ordered a recall of several baby formula milk and baby food products made by French dairy giant Lactalis after the discovery of Salmonella bacteria, consumer protection agency DGCCRF said in a statement.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Pediatrics News Source Type: news
LONDON (Reuters) - The number of salmonella food poisoning cases in the European Union has risen by 3 percent since 2014 in a "worrying" reversal of a decade-long declining trend, EU health and food safety officials said on Tuesday.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
(European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)) The declining trend of salmonellosis cases in the EU has levelled off according to the annual report on zoonotic diseases published today.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
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