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Microbiota-activated PPAR-{gamma} signaling inhibits dysbiotic Enterobacteriaceae expansion

Perturbation of the gut-associated microbial community may underlie many human illnesses, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are poorly understood. We found that the depletion of butyrate-producing microbes by antibiotic treatment reduced epithelial signaling through the intracellular butyrate sensor peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR-). Nitrate levels increased in the colonic lumen because epithelial expression of Nos2, the gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase, was elevated in the absence of PPAR- signaling. Microbiota-induced PPAR- signaling also limits the luminal bioavailability of oxygen by driving the energy metabolism of colonic epithelial cells (colonocytes) toward β-oxidation. Therefore, microbiota-activated PPAR- signaling is a homeostatic pathway that prevents a dysbiotic expansion of potentially pathogenic Escherichia and Salmonella by reducing the bioavailability of respiratory electron acceptors to Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen of the colon.
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology r-articles Source Type: news

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In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) on ameliorating enteritis in newly weaned pigs following S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- challenge. In our study, monophasic variant Salmonella induced the mRNA expression of toll like receptor (TLR) 5 and TLR4, while increased interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6 mRNA expression in the jejunum. In the ileum, the inflammatory response mainly relies on the recognition of intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD2, through promoting the phosphorylation of IκB-α and the activation of NF-κB. O...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017 Source:Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Author(s): Swetha K. Maddili, Leela Prasad Yandrati, Shakuntala Siddam, Vijaya Kumar Kannekanti, Himabindu Gandham A series of Mannich bases of imidazo[2, l-b]benzothiazoles were prepared through one-pot multi-component reaction in the presence of water as an eco-friendly solvent. All the synthesized compounds were confirmed from IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and Mass spectroscopy. Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities of all the synthesized derivatives was further accomplished. These result...
Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research
This study has focused on the isolation of twenty-three halophilic actinomycetes from two ponds of different salinity and the evaluation of their ability to exert an antimicrobial activity against both their competitors and several other pathogens. From the 23 isolates, 18 strains showed antagonistic activity, while 19 showed activities against one or more of the seven pathogen strains tested. Six strains exhibited consistent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens characterized at the physiological and molecular levels. These strains shared only 94-95% 16S rRNA sequence identity with the c...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Salmonella osteomyelitis is well-described in children with hemoglobinopathies, particularly infection with Salmonella typhi. To characterize nontyphoidal osteomyelitis in otherwise healthy children without hemoglobinopathies, we performed a retrospective review of children discharged from our institution with this condition, supplemented with a systematic literature review. Among the 46 subjects identified, common risk factors for Salmonella infection were frequently absent and complications were common.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research
Typhoid fever is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world, particularly in children, but is infrequently observed in the developed world and can occur in patients without a significant travel history. Rhabdomyolysis as a complication has rarely been reported, and never in a child. A child with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi septicemia, complicated by rhabdomyolysis, encephalopathy and pancreatitis is described and all 15 reported cases to date are summarized.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 October 2017 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 146 Author(s): D.F. Mollenkopf, D.A. Mathys, D.A. Dargatz, M.M. Erdman, G.G. Habing, J.B. Daniels, T.E. Wittum In the US, nontyphoidal Salmonellae are a common foodborne zoonotic pathogen causing gastroenteritis. Invasive Salmonella infections caused by extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant (ESCR) phenotypes are more likely to result in treatment failure and adverse health outcomes, especially in severe pediatric Salmonella infections where the extended-spectrum β-lactams are the therapy of choice. To examine the genetic and epidemiolo...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Molecular Liquids, Volume 243 Author(s): Jothi Ramalingam R., Mansoor-Ali Vaali-Mohammed, Hamad A. Al-Lohedan, Jimmy Nelson Appaturi In the present study, a unique precursor source and plant extract have been developed for biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different silver precursor solutions. Mesoporous-MnO2 nanocomposites (before doping AgNPs in meso-MnO2) were prepared using anon-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100) and the antibacterial activity of the prepared sample was analyzed against various bacterial pathogens. The plant leaf extract of Alternant...
Source: Journal of Molecular Liquids - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
(MedPage Today) -- Agency tested samples for salmonella, Listeria, and E. coli
Source: MedPage Today Public Health - Category: American Health Source Type: news
Christopher J. Grim, Ninalynn Daquigan, Tina S. Lusk Pfefer, Andrea R. Ottesen, James R. White, Karen G. Jarvis
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017 Source:Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Flávia Aparecida Resende, Catarine Haidê Nogueira, Lívia Greghi Espanha, Paula Karina Boldrin, Ana Paula Oliveira-Höhne, Mariana Santoro de Camargo, Cláudia Quintino da Rocha, Wagner Vilegas, Eliana Aparecida Varanda Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC.) Bureau is a shrub native Cerrado, known as "cipó-una", "tintureiro" or “cervejinha do campo” and popularly used in Southeastern and Northeastern Brazil to treatment of kidney stones and painful joints (arth...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research
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