Amniotic sac in a dish: Stem cells form structures that may aid of infertility research

(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) The first few weeks after sperm meets egg still hold many mysteries. Among them: what causes the process to fail, leading to many cases of infertility. But scientists haven't had a good way to explore the biology behind this phenomenon. Now, a new achievement using human stem cells could give researchers a chance to see what they couldn't before, while avoiding ethical issues associated with studying actual embryos.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Abstract Severe uterine damage and infection lead to intrauterine adhesions, which result in hypomenorrhea, amenorrhea and infertility. Cell sheet engineering has shown great promise in clinical applications. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are emerging as an alternative source of stem cells for cell-based therapies. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of applying ADSCs as seed cells to form scaffold-free cell sheet. Data showed that ADSC sheets expressed higher levels of FGF, Col I, TGFβ and VEGF than ADSCs in suspension, while increased expression of this gene set was associated with st...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research
Inflammatory cytokine profile of co‑cultivated primary cells from the endometrium of women with and without endometriosis. Mol Med Rep. 2018 Jun 06;: Authors: Luckow Invitti A, Schor E, Martins Parreira R, Kopelman A, Kamergorodsky G, Gonçalves GA, Batista Castello Girão MJ Abstract Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disorder defined as the presence of endometrial tissue within extra-uterine sites. The primary symptoms are infertility and chronic pain. The inflammatory environment and aberrant immune responses in women with endometriosis may be directly associated with the initiat...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Spermatogenesis is precisely controlled by complex gene expression programs and involves epigenetic reprogramming, including histone modification and DNA methylation. SET domain–containing 2 (SETD2) is the predominant histone methyltransferase catalyzing the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36me3) and plays key roles in embryonic stem cell differentiation and somatic cell development. However, its role in male germ cell development remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate an essential role of Setd2 for spermiogenesis, the final stage of spermatogenesis. Using RNA-seq, we found that, in postnatal mouse testes, ...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Developmental Biology Source Type: research
On July 25, 1978, the first human was born following extracorporeal fertilization, an event that opened up a new medical science: expanding our knowledge of and developing novel treatments for infertility, radically changing the opportunities for families with inherited monogenic disorders, generating the new discipline of clinical embryology, and paving the way for studies into stem cell biology. In  vitro fertilization (IVF), as it became known in its simplest form, went even further: it engaged the myriad of minds in human society.
Source: Fertility and Sterility - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Views and reviews Source Type: research
Authors: Dehghani F, Sotoude N, Bordbar H, Panjeshahin MR, Karbalay-Doust S Abstract Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has a potential effect on tissue repair through proliferation and differentiation of tissue progenitor cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRP on the testis structure and function in infertile rat model by stereological method. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups. Infertility was induced by the administration of busulfan (BUS) (10mg/kg, I.P., single dose). PRP (80μl, testis local injected, single dose) was administered for the subjects. After 48 days, semen an...
Source: Platelets - Category: Hematology Tags: Platelets Source Type: research
Journal of Cellular Physiology, EarlyView.
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Male germ cells are transformed from undifferentiated stem cells into spermatozoa through a series of highly regulated steps together termed spermatogenesis. Spermatogonial stem cells undergo mitosis and differentiation followed by two rounds of meiotic division and then proceed through a series of dramatic cell shape changes to form highly differentiated spermatozoa. Using indirect immunofluorescence, we investigated a role for the mitotic kinase, Aurora A (AURKA) in these events through localization of this protein in mouse testis and spermatozoa. AURKA is expressed in several cell types in the testis. ...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
Abstract Krüppel-like zinc finger proteins form one of the largest families of transcription factors. They function as key regulators of embryonic development and a wide range of other physiological processes, and are implicated in a variety of pathologies. GLI-similar 1-3 (GLIS1-3) constitute a subfamily of Krüppel-like zinc finger proteins that act either as activators or repressors of gene transcription. GLIS3 plays a critical role in the regulation of multiple biological processes and is a key regulator of pancreatic β cell generation and maturation, insulin gene expression, thyroid hormone bios...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
In this study, we reported a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation landscape in chicken germ cells, and transcriptomic dynamics was also presented. By uncovering DNA methylation patterns on individual genes, some genes accurately modulated by DNA methylation were found to be associated with cancers and virus infection, e.g., AKT1 and CTNNB1. Chicken-unique markers were also discovered for identifying male germ cells. Importantly, integrated epigenetic mechanisms were explored during male germ cell differentiation, which provides deep insight into the epigenetic processes associated with male germ cell differentiation a...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusions: The differential adhesion method provides a more feasible approach and is an easier procedure to establish FGSC lines than traditional methods. The AKT pathway plays an important role in regulation of the proliferation and maintenance of FGSCs. These findings could help promote stem cell studies and provide a better understanding of causes of ovarian infertility, thereby providing potential treatments for infertility.Cell Physiol Biochem 2018;46:2114 –2126
Source: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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