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Epidemiology of Acute Otitis Media Changed From 2006 - 2016

Change in proportion of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis causing AOM
Source: Pulmonary Medicine News - Doctors Lounge - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Infections, ENT, Pediatrics, Pharmacy, Pulmonology, Journal, Source Type: news

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This study addresses the primary hypothesis that H. parainfluenzae forms biofilm communities that are important determinants of persistence in vivo. The results from in vitro biofilm studies confirmed that H. parainfluenzae formed biofilm communities within which the polymeric matrix was mainly composed of extracellular DNA and proteins. Using a chinchilla OM infection model, we demonstrated that H. parainfluenzae formed surface-associated biofilm communities containing bacterial and host components that included neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) structures and that the bacteria mainly persisted in these biofilm communit...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Molecular Pathogenesis Source Type: research
Biofilms formed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are central to the chronicity, recurrence, and resistance to treatment of multiple human respiratory tract diseases including otitis media, chronic rhinosinusitis, and exacerbations of both cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and associated DNABII proteins are essential to the...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research
Abstract Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria are enriched in several outer membrane components, including major and minor outer membrane proteins and lipooligosaccharide. We assessed the functional activity of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) OMV-specific antisera and the protective ability of NTHi OMVs as vaccine antigens in the chinchilla otitis media model. OMVs were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, two of which were also engineered to overexpress Hia proteins. OMV-specific antisera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate kill...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: sOP children is a highly vulnerable population that mount lower serum antibody responses to Mcat candidate vaccine proteins compared to NOP children during asymptomatic NP carriage and at onset of AOM. PMID: 28755833 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial treatment is indicated in all children under two years of age as well as in children ≥ two years of age who have a temperature ≥39oC; are toxic looking; have otalgia >48 hours; have bilateral otitis media or otorrhea; have craniofacial abnormalities; are immunocompromised; or have uncertain access to follow-up. Amoxicillin is the drug of choice. Observation without antibiotic is an option in immunocompetent children ≥ two years of age who have an acute uncomplicated otitis media and non-severe illness if appropriate follow-up can be arranged. PMID: 28707578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov Source Type: research
Abstract Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that plays a major role in a number of respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biofilm formation has been implicated in both NTHi colonization and disease, and is responsible for the increased tolerance of this pathogen towards antibiotic treatment. Targeting metabolic pathways that are important in NTHi biofilm formation represents a potential strategy to combat this antibiotic recalcitrance. A previous investigation demonstrated increased expression of a putati...
Source: Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study provides, for the first time, information on flagellar expression in H. influenzae, representing an important finding related to its evolution and pathogenic potential. PMID: 28513418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Authors: Konduru AS, Matsuyama S, Lee BC, Komatsu K, Li JD Abstract Otitis media (OM), characterized by the presence of mucus overproduction and excess inflammation in the middle ear, is the most common childhood infection. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) pathogen is responsible for approximately one-third of episodes of bacteria-caused OM. Current treatments for bacterial OM rely on the systemic use of antibiotics, which often leads to the emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains. Therefore there is an urgent need for developing alternative therapies strategies for controlling mucus overproduct...
Source: International Journal of Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int J Inflam Source Type: research
Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine protein carriers as a "neglected valency" - Potential and limitations. Vaccine. 2017 May 06;: Authors: Bröker M, Berti F, Schneider J, Vojtek I Abstract The development of vaccines against polysaccharide-encapsulated pathogens (e.g. Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococci, meningococci) is challenging because polysaccharides do not elicit a strong and long-lasting immune response (i.e. T-cell independent). This can be overcome by conjugating the polysaccharide to a protein carrier (e.g. tetanus toxoid, cross-reacting material 197 [CRM]), which vastly ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
The objective of this study is to investigate if the same strains of bacteria could be detected in repeated episodes of otorrhea in CSOM. In a prospective case series at a primary healthcare clinic in Nuuk, Greenland, patients with more than 14  days of otorrhea were included consecutively. Samples for culturing and biofilm analysis were taken at enrollment and at any subsequent episode with otorrhea. Participants were treated with daily saline irrigation and Ciprofloxacin eardrops for 7–14 days. Biofilm was identified in otorrhea in 8 1% (17/21) of participants at enrollment. Multispecies infections domina...
Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
More News: Epidemiology | Haemophilus Influenzae (Hib) | Otitis | Otitis Media | Pediatrics | Respiratory Medicine