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Epidemiology of Acute Otitis Media Changed From 2006 - 2016

Change in proportion of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis causing AOM
Source: Pulmonary Medicine News - Doctors Lounge - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Infections, ENT, Pediatrics, Pharmacy, Pulmonology, Journal, Source Type: news

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Conclusion: Otitis media–related diagnoses have decreased in Sweden since the introduction of PCV. Though some decreases were more pronounced in areas where PCV10 were used, figures should be interpreted with great caution, because considerable geographical differences were obvious also before vaccine introduction.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
In this report, a literature review regarding the EPE due to Hi in children is also summarized. Pediatric clinicians should be aware of the possibility of Hi-related EPE because of its rapid progression, although it is rare in clinical settings. In addition, they need to consider the possibility of repetitive respiratory infections with Hi in a child with trisomy 21.
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions NTHi OM has trended upward in the post-PCV era. Concurrent sinusitis, previous ventilation tube insertion, and recurrent OM were associated with NTHi OM implicated a correlation between NTHi and complex OM. In consideration of NTHi infection, we suggest amoxicillin/clavulanate as the first-line therapy for OM among Taiwanese children.
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Concerns about non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in otitis media (OM) have grown after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). We aim to better understand the clinical role of NTHi in pediatric OM. METHODS: Middle ear fluid samples from children
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research
Mucociliary clearance is a first line of defence against airway infection. Motile cilia function is important for the transport of inhaled bacteria and other unwanted particulate matter away from the lungs. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited condition in which motile cilia function is disrupted. Patients with PCD suffer from poor mucociliary clearance of the upper and lower airways leading to chronic wet cough, rhinusinusitis, otitis media and reoccurring infections [1]. The most commonly isolated organism from PCD sputum or nasal lavage is Haemophilus influenzae [1]. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis, Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Editorials Source Type: research
This study addresses the primary hypothesis that H. parainfluenzae forms biofilm communities that are important determinants of persistence in vivo. The results from in vitro biofilm studies confirmed that H. parainfluenzae formed biofilm communities within which the polymeric matrix was mainly composed of extracellular DNA and proteins. Using a chinchilla OM infection model, we demonstrated that H. parainfluenzae formed surface-associated biofilm communities containing bacterial and host components that included neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) structures and that the bacteria mainly persisted in these biofilm communit...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Molecular Pathogenesis Source Type: research
Biofilms formed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are central to the chronicity, recurrence, and resistance to treatment of multiple human respiratory tract diseases including otitis media, chronic rhinosinusitis, and exacerbations of both cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and associated DNABII proteins are essential to the...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research
Abstract Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria are enriched in several outer membrane components, including major and minor outer membrane proteins and lipooligosaccharide. We assessed the functional activity of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) OMV-specific antisera and the protective ability of NTHi OMVs as vaccine antigens in the chinchilla otitis media model. OMVs were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, two of which were also engineered to overexpress Hia proteins. OMV-specific antisera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate kill...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: sOP children is a highly vulnerable population that mount lower serum antibody responses to Mcat candidate vaccine proteins compared to NOP children during asymptomatic NP carriage and at onset of AOM. PMID: 28755833 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial treatment is indicated in all children under two years of age as well as in children ≥ two years of age who have a temperature ≥39oC; are toxic looking; have otalgia >48 hours; have bilateral otitis media or otorrhea; have craniofacial abnormalities; are immunocompromised; or have uncertain access to follow-up. Amoxicillin is the drug of choice. Observation without antibiotic is an option in immunocompetent children ≥ two years of age who have an acute uncomplicated otitis media and non-severe illness if appropriate follow-up can be arranged. PMID: 28707578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov Source Type: research
More News: Epidemiology | Haemophilus Influenzae (Hib) | Otitis | Otitis Media | Pediatrics | Respiratory Medicine