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Epidemiology of Acute Otitis Media Changed From 2006 - 2016

Change in proportion of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis causing AOM
Source: Pulmonary Medicine News - Doctors Lounge - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Infections, ENT, Pediatrics, Pharmacy, Pulmonology, Journal, Source Type: news

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We previously found CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) to be a potent effector of inflammation during otitis media (OM): exogenous CCL3 rescues the OM phenotype of tumor necrosis factor-deficient mice and the function of macrophages deficient in several innate immune molecules. To further delineate the role of CCL3 in OM, we evaluated middle ear (ME) responses of ccl3–/–mice to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). CCL chemokine gene expression was evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice during the complete course of acute OM. OM was induced in ccl3–/– and WT mice, and infection and inflammation were monito...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Bacterial Infections Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We compared the recovery of potential respiratory bacterial pathogens and normal flora from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from children during health and at the onset of acute otitis media (AOM) by selective direct-plating and overnight broth-enrichment. METHODS: Overall, 3442 nasal wash (NW) samples collected from young children were analysed from a 10-year prospective study. NWs were cultured by (1) direct-plating to TSAII/5 % sheep blood agar and chocolate agar plates and (2) overnight broth-enrichment in BacT/ALERT SA-broth followed by plating. Standard microbiology techniques w...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Conclusion: Otitis media–related diagnoses have decreased in Sweden since the introduction of PCV. Though some decreases were more pronounced in areas where PCV10 were used, figures should be interpreted with great caution, because considerable geographical differences were obvious also before vaccine introduction.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
Abstract Biofilms play a central role in the pathobiology of otitis media (OM), bronchitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI). Our previous studies show that extracellular DNA (eDNA) and DNABII proteins are essential components of biofilms formed by NTHI. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and the histone‐like protein HU and plays a central role in NTHI biofilm structural integrity. We demonstrated that immunological targeting of these proteins during NTHI‐induced experimental OM in a chinchilla model caused rapid clearance of biof...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
The 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) have been successfully used in the Slovak national universal mass vaccination programme (UMV) to protect against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD), pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) since 2011. Six years after the introduction of PCV in paediatric UMV in Slovakia, we have estimated cost-effectiveness of the two vaccines.
Source: Value in Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
In this report, a literature review regarding the EPE due to Hi in children is also summarized. Pediatric clinicians should be aware of the possibility of Hi-related EPE because of its rapid progression, although it is rare in clinical settings. In addition, they need to consider the possibility of repetitive respiratory infections with Hi in a child with trisomy 21.
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions NTHi OM has trended upward in the post-PCV era. Concurrent sinusitis, previous ventilation tube insertion, and recurrent OM were associated with NTHi OM implicated a correlation between NTHi and complex OM. In consideration of NTHi infection, we suggest amoxicillin/clavulanate as the first-line therapy for OM among Taiwanese children.
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Concerns about non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in otitis media (OM) have grown after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). We aim to better understand the clinical role of NTHi in pediatric OM. METHODS: Middle ear fluid samples from children
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research
Mucociliary clearance is a first line of defence against airway infection. Motile cilia function is important for the transport of inhaled bacteria and other unwanted particulate matter away from the lungs. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited condition in which motile cilia function is disrupted. Patients with PCD suffer from poor mucociliary clearance of the upper and lower airways leading to chronic wet cough, rhinusinusitis, otitis media and reoccurring infections [1]. The most commonly isolated organism from PCD sputum or nasal lavage is Haemophilus influenzae [1]. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis, Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Editorials Source Type: research
This study addresses the primary hypothesis that H. parainfluenzae forms biofilm communities that are important determinants of persistence in vivo. The results from in vitro biofilm studies confirmed that H. parainfluenzae formed biofilm communities within which the polymeric matrix was mainly composed of extracellular DNA and proteins. Using a chinchilla OM infection model, we demonstrated that H. parainfluenzae formed surface-associated biofilm communities containing bacterial and host components that included neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) structures and that the bacteria mainly persisted in these biofilm communit...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Molecular Pathogenesis Source Type: research
More News: Epidemiology | Haemophilus Influenzae (Hib) | Otitis | Otitis Media | Pediatrics | Respiratory Medicine