Vaccines Have Changed the Epidemiology of Acute Otitis Media Vaccines Have Changed the Epidemiology of Acute Otitis Media

Acute otitis media incidence has dropped since 1989, but risk factors remain: attending day care, having a family history, or having it at a young age. Editorialists say vaccination should continue.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Pediatrics News Source Type: news

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Outbreaks of severe pneumococcal disease occur sporadically and can affect large numbers of individuals, although they are less frequent compared to the pre-antibiotic era.1 The responsible pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a Gram-positive bacterium that commonly colonises the nasopharyngeal tract, especially in young children. Occasionally, however, it can invade locally to cause mucosal infections including sinusitis, otitis media or pneumonia. Rarely, invasion of the bloodstream can lead to more serious infections, including septicaemia and meningitis.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial infections in children, including meningitis, bacteremia, bacteremic pneumonia, empyema, and mucosal infections such as otitis media and non-bacteremic pneumonia. After the implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), worldwide, the burden of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) and non-invasive pneumococcal diseases due to vaccine serotypes (VTs) greatly decreased in children.1 However, since 2015, several European countries have reported an increased incidence of IPDs due to non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs), which seemed variable across countries in ter...
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: European Paediatric Association Source Type: research
Conclusions: The PHiD-CV vaccination program in Brazil has resulted in important reductions of pneumococcal disease and substantial cost savings. Instead of switching PCVs, expanding vaccine coverage or investing in other health care interventions would be a more efficient use of resources to improve the health of the population in Brazil.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
Acute otitis media is one of the most common childhood infections worldwide. Currently licensed vaccines against the common otopathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae target the bacterial capsular polysaccharide and confer no protection against nonencapsulated strains or capsular types outside vaccine coverage. Mucosal infections such as acute otitis media remain prevalent, even those caused by vaccine-covered serotypes. Here, we report that a protein-based vaccine, a fusion construct of epitopes of CbpA to pneumolysin toxoid, confers effective protection against pneumococcal acute otitis media for non-PCV-13 serotypes and enhan...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
Abstract Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, otorrhea, anorexia, and sometimes vomiting or lethargy. AOM is diagnosed in symptomatic children with moderate to severe bulging of the tympanic membrane or new-onset otorrhea not caused by acute otitis externa, and in children with mild bulging and either recent-onset ear pain (less than 48 hours) or intense erythema of the t...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research
September 9, 2019 -- Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE) announced today positive preliminary results following administration of three doses in a four-dose series for a Proof-of-Concept Phase 2 study (B7471003) to assess safety and immunogenicity of its...
Source: Drugs.com - Clinical Trials - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: clinical trials
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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
ABSTRACT Measles is an acute febrile exanthematic disease of viral etiology, highly contagious, being the cause of morbidity and mortality of children in developing countries, whereas it has become rarer in developed countries due to vaccination. Its differential diagnosis should be made with other childhood viral respiratory diseases such as influenza, rhinovirus and adenovirus, and exanthematic febrile diseases such as rubella, roseola and varicella. In tropical regions, it should be performed with dengue, zika and chikungunya. Its clinical picture presents the following phases: incubation, usually asymptomatic; a prodro...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Conclusions The management of pediatric AM is generally similar by both disciplines. The use of imaging studies is mild-moderate. We call for a national registry and encourage the publication of guidelines.
Source: Pediatric Emergency Care - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a pathogen known for being a frequent cause of acute otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the present study, a vaccine antigen based on the fusion of two known NTHi adhesive proteins, protein E (PE) and a pilin subunit (PilA), was developed. The quality of the combined antigen was investigated through functional, biophysical, and structural analyses. It was shown that the PE and PilA individual structures are not modified in the PE-PilA fusion and that PE-PilA assembles as a dimer in solution, reflecti...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
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