Stopping Epidemics At The Source: Applying Lessons From Cholera To The Opioid Crisis

On September 8, 1854, acting on the advice of Dr. John Snow, London municipal authorities removed the pump handle from the Broad Street well in an effort to halt a major outbreak of cholera. Although an anesthesiologist by profession, Snow had methodically mapped the homes of new cases of cholera. He found that many clustered around the Broad Street pump. Snow’s findings, still regarded as a classic example of epidemiology, established the principle: “that the most important information to have about any communicable disease is its mode of communication.” Dr. Snow did not establish the biologic mechanism of cholera or devise an effective treatment for those stricken with the disease; instead, his research indicated that the disease was transmitted through contaminated water. His methods demonstrated how the root cause of an emerging public health problem could be determined through epidemiological observation. It was later determined that a cholera-contaminated diaper had been washed near the pump. We Need to Change How We Manage Pain Today, our nation faces a different kind of epidemic — a rising toll of hospitalizations and deaths from opioid abuse. The Department of Defense (DoD) and Veterans Health Administration (VA) have been aware of problems with excessive use of opioids in patient management for more than a decade. This recognition, in part, was driven by the last 17 years of armed conflict and the health care challenges this has wrought on in...
Source: Health Affairs Blog - Category: Health Management Authors: Tags: Featured Public Health Quality Department of Veterans Affairs military health care Opioid Addiction opioid epidemic Source Type: blogs

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CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight a key role of the nucleus accumbens in cigarette craving in schizophrenia and suggest that the subjective valuation of cigarette cues is increased in this population. Similar neurofunctional studies on cravings for other psychoactive substances in schizophrenia are warranted. PMID: 30445892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dual Diagnosis - Category: Addiction Tags: J Dual Diagn Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Polysubstance use, conceptualized within the multimorbidity perspective, is associated with increased severity of PTSD symptoms among veterans with dual diagnoses requiring complex interventions, the evaluation of which will require innovative trial designs. PMID: 30444189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dual Diagnosis - Category: Addiction Tags: J Dual Diagn Source Type: research
Full Proposal Deadline Date: December 18, 2018 Program Guidelines: NSF 18-598NSF's Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) initiated the National Network of Big Data Regional Innovation Hubs (BD Hubs) program in FY 2015 (NSF 15-562). Four Big Data Hubs (BD Hubs)—Midwest, Northeast, South, and West—were established, one in each of the four Census Regions of the United States[1]. The BD Hubs provide the ability to engage local or regional stakeholders, ...More at https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=505185&WT.mc_id=USNSF_39&WT.mc_ev=clickThis is an NSF Upcoming Due Dates item.
Source: NSF Upcoming Due Dates - Category: Science Source Type: funding
The US watchdog that is supposed to protect patients is in thrall to an industry profiting from addictionYears into America ’sopioid epidemic, as the death toll climbed into the hundreds of thousands, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) held a hearing to consider a drug company application to approve a new high-strength painkiller.The FDA assembles advisory committees of doctors and scientists to weigh the arguments for and against new drugs. In 2012, an opioid 10 times more powerful than regular painkillers, Zohydro ER, was on the agenda. By then, no one was in any doubt about the ravages of the worst drug epi...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Opioids Opioids crisis Pharmaceuticals industry Regulators NHS Health Drugs Society US news Science UK news Source Type: news
ConclusionThis study concluded that chitosan derivative film is equivalent to hydrocolloid dressing and can be an option in the management of superficial and abrasion wounds.Clinical trial No.NMRR-11-948-10565.
Source: Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research
Abuse is defined as, “the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or verbal maltreatment, injury, assault, violation, rape, unjust practices, crimes, or other types of aggression.”1 The more I hear the president speak, the more he presents as an abusive parent, with name-calling, threats and bullying hurled at those who disagree with his policies and public persona. The intention is to control through intimidation in order to maintain his version of reality. This is a common theme a...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Anger Bullying Communication Minding the Media Narcissism Personal Trauma Abusive Parent Abusive Treatment Authoritarian Parenting Child Abuse President Trump Source Type: blogs
This study examined the role of perceived safety. Data were collected with a web survey of 520 students across the U.S. Both open-ended and closed-ended items were included. On average, respondents disagreed that they would carry a gun on campus if policy permitted. This study found no empirical evidence of a significant association between perceived campus safety and intent to carry, or between perceived safety and perceptions of campus carry policies. Student responses to open-ended questions revealed themes in reasoning related to personal safety that were not otherwise apparent in the statistical data.
Source: The Social Science Journal - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
In this study we extended the range of stimulation frequencies, using also low and medium stimulation frequencies (4, 6, 8, 12, 20, 40 Hz) and studied their susceptibility to the loss of consciousness in NREM sleep (N2 and N3 stages).Effects of NREM sleep were examined in power domain with relative power (RP), and in phase domain using inter-trial phase coherence (PC) parameter. The activity in power domain was also compared to no-stimulation data. Regions displaying significant waking-NREM sleep differences were selected using non-parametric suprathreshold cluster test. For 4, 6, 20 and 40 Hz stimulation relative powe...
Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Potential combination topical therapy of anal fissure: development, evaluation, and clinical study†. Drug Deliv. 2018 Nov;25(1):1672-1682 Authors: Salem AE, Mohamed EA, Elghadban HM, Abdelghani GM Abstract To treat anal fissure, internal anal sphincterotomy may be associated with surgical risks and incidence of incontinence. Botulinum toxin injection into the anal sphincter is invasive and expensive. Headache and hypotension hindered topical treatment with glyceryl trinitrate. Greater patient compliance, potentiated efficacy, reduced side effects, and lower cost are the major advantages offered ...
Source: Drug Delivery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Deliv Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Tina B. McKay, Yashar Seyed-Razavi, Chiara E. Ghezzi, Gabriela Dieckmann, Thomas J.F. Nieland, Dana M. Cairns, Rachel E. Pollard, Pedram Hamrah, David L. KaplanAbstractThe cornea is a valuable tissue for studying peripheral sensory nerve structure and regeneration due to its avascularity, transparency, and dense innervation. Somatosensory innervation of the cornea serves to identify changes in environmental stimuli at the ocular surface, thereby promoting barrier function to protect the eye against injury or infection....
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
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