Scientists discover unknown virus in 'throwaway' DNA

(University of Oxford) A chance discovery has opened up a new method of finding unknown viruses.In research published in the journal Virus Evolution, scientists from Oxford University's Department of Zoology have revealed that Next-Generation Sequencing and its associated online DNA databases could be used in the field of viral discovery. They have developed algorithms that detect DNA from viruses that happen to be in fish blood or tissue samples, and could be used to identify viruses in a range of different species.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Parasitology InternationalAuthor(s): Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Tomoya Saito
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Molecular and Biochemical ParasitologyAuthor(s): Cong Liu, Zhenkui Li, Yuanyuan Jiang, Huiting Cui, Jing YuanAbstractMale and female gametocytes are the infectious forms critical for malaria transmission and targets of intervention. Gametocytes are generally produced in relatively small numbers, and it has been difficult to obtain pure male and female gametocytes for various studies. Male and female gametocytes expressing unique fluorescence reporters have been generated for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei parasites, which allows isolation of large nu...
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Molecular and Biochemical ParasitologyAuthor(s): Luciana Baroni, Luiz M. Pereira, Sutherland K. Maciver, Ana P. YatsudaAbstractNeospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes infectious abortion in cows. As an obligate intracellular parasite, N. caninum requires a host cell environment to survive and replicate. The locomotion and invasion mechanisms of apicomplexan parasites are centred on the actin-myosin system to propel the parasite forwards and into the host cell. The functions of actin, an intrinsically dynamic protein, are modulated by actin-binding prot...
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
This study was conducted using 80 multiparous Awassi ewes during the breeding season to compare the effects of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) treatment durations on ewe reproductive performance, hormone profiles, and economic production measures. Ewes were evenly allotted to one of various CIDR treatment durations (3, 6, 9, or 12 d) in four groups (CIDR3, CIDR6, CIDR9, and CIDR12 (control), respectively). The ewes in all groups were injected with 300 IU of equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) at the time of withdrawal. Blood samples were collected at the time of CIDR insertion and withdrawal, as well as at the time...
Source: Small Ruminant Research - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Small Ruminant ResearchAuthor(s): Jeanette Olejnik, Natalka Suchowerska, Muren Herrid, Michael Jackson, Geoff Hinch, Jonathan HillAbstractMany alternatives to surgical castration have been explored to induce short or long term infertility in male animals. Comparatively few have been carefully evaluated in very young production animals. A comparison of four treatments known to deplete testicular cells in rodents (heating, cooling, chemotherapy, radiation) was undertaken using ram lambs.Neither testicular cooling (0 °C) nor heating (45 °C) affected ...
Source: Small Ruminant Research - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Gerald L. Murray, Theeraya Simawaranon, Chamraj Kaewraemruaen, Ben Adler, Rasana W. SermswanAbstractA previously-described live, attenuated vaccine (M1352, serovar Manilae, serogroup Pyrogenes) was tested in the hamster model of infection for cross-protective immunity. The vaccine elicited strong, significant cross-protection against lethal infection by strains representing four serologically distinct leptospiral serovars (Grippotyphosa, Australis, Canicola, and Autumnalis). Combined with our previously reported protection against sero...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, EqHV is present in the South African Thoroughbred population and appears more prevalent than reported in other horse populations worldwide.
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2018Source: Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 223Author(s): Da Xu, Jiabao Song, Ganwu Li, Wentong Cai, Shucheng Zong, Zhaoli Li, Wenxing Liu, Sen Hu, Zhigao BuAbstractBrucellosis, caused by Brucella spp., is one of the most serious zoonotic bacterial diseases. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are recognized as a key player in bacterial post-transcription regulation, since they participate in many biological processes with high efficiency and may govern the intracellular biochemistry and virulence of some pathogenic bacteria. Here, a novel small regulatory RNA, Bmsr1 (Brucella melitensis M28 small RNA 1), was id...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The objectives of this study were to quantify shedding of R. equi in mares and foals after experimental infection of foals with 2 different inocula and to determine the effect of composting on concentrations of R. equi in contaminated bedding. Foals were infected intratracheally with virulent R. equi using inocula of 1 × 107 CFU/mL (n = 16) or 1 × 106 CFU/mL (n = 12) at 23 ± 2 days (range 21 to 27 days) of age. Fecal samples were collected from mares and foals prior to infection and on days 3, 7, and 14 post-infection for quantitative ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Ingrid Toftaker, Estelle Ågren, Maria Stokstad, Ane Nødtvedt, Jenny FrösslingAbstractA national control program against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) was launched in Norway in 2016. A key strategy in the program is to test for presence of antibodies and protect test-negative herds from infection. Because these viruses are endemic, the rate of re-introduction can be high, and a disease-free status will become more uncertain as time from testing elapses. The aim of this st...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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