The first- and second-language age of acquisition effect in first- and second-language book reading
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Nicolas Dirix, Wouter Duyck The age of acquisition (AoA) effect in first/monolingual language processing has received much attention in psycholinguistic research. However, AoA effects in second language processing were only investigated rarely. In the current study, we investigated first (L1) and second language (L2) AoA effects in a combined eye tracking and mega study approach. We analyzed data of a corpus of eye movements to assess the time course of AoA effects on bilingual reading. We found an effect of L2 AoA in both early and late measures of L2 reading: fixation times were faster for words that were learned earlier in L2. This suggests that the L2 AoA effect has an influence throughout the entire L2 reading process, analogous to the L1 AoA effect. However, we are also the first to find an early effect of L1 AoA on L2 processing: if the L1 translation of the L2 word was learned earlier, the L2 word was also read faster. We discuss the implications of these findings for two important hypotheses that offer an explanation for the AoA effect: the mapping and semantic hypothesis. We propose that the current results suggest an integration between these accounts.
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Guangshan Yao, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Xiuna Wang, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
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ConclusionsA MEL‐A2 with novel composition and surface activities was efficiently produced from a novel MEL producer. This is the first report on production of MEL‐A2 as the major product and from soybean oil. The biosurfactant has potential application as a wetting agent and oil‐in‐water emulsifier. Significance and Impact of the StudyDiscovery of novel structures and novel strains is valuable for further commercial development and application of MELs. Sporisorium sp. aff. sorghi SAM20 can be considered as a potential candidate for commercial production of biosurfactants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. The phosphodiesterase VieA regulates gene expression by modifying the intracellular cyclic diguanylate pool. This article reveals the differential regulation of VieA in Vibrio cholerae O1 biotypes. Expression of VieA is repressed by the nucleoid‐associated protein H‐NS and the LysR‐type regulator LeuO in classical biotype V. cholerae, and by H‐NS and the quorum sensing regulator HapR in the El Tor biotype.
We describe approaches for back‐calculating model parameter estimates and their standard errors from available summary statistics with various techniques, including approximate Bayesian computation. We propose to use a quadratic approximation to the log‐likelihood for each historical trial based on 2 independent terms for the log mean rate and the log of the dispersion parameter. A Bayesian hierarchical meta‐analysis model then provides the posterior predictive distribution for these parameters. Simulations show this approach with back‐calculated parameter estimates results in very similar inference as using parame...