Order of items within associations
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Kenichi Kato, Jeremy B. Caplan Association-memory is a major focus of verbal memory research. However, experimental paradigms have only occasionally tested memory for the order of the constituent items (AB versus BA). Published models of association-memory, implicitly, make clear assumptions about whether associations are learned without order (e.g., convolution-based models) or with unambiguous order (e.g., matrix models). Seeking empirical data to test these assumptions, participants studied lists of word-pairs, and were tested with cued recall, associative recognition and constituent-order recognition. Order-recognition was well above chance, challenging strict convolution-based models, but only moderately coupled with association-memory. Convolution models are thus insufficient, needing an additional mechanism to infer constituent order, in a manner that is moderately correlated with association-memory. Current matrix models provide order, but over-predict the coupling of order- and association-memory. In a simulation, when we allowed for order to be wrongly encoded for some proportion of pairs, order-recognition could be decoupled from cued recall. This led to the prediction that participants should persist with their incorrect order judgement between initial and final order-recognition, but this was not supported by the data. These findings demand that current models be amended,...
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