Picture Exchange Communication System and Delay to Reinforcement

AbstractPicture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) is a form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) frequently used by individuals with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability when speech development is delayed or does not develop (Bondy and Frost1994 inFocus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 9, 1 –19; Sunberg and Partington1998). Researchers have previously evaluated variations of PECS as a means for vocalization development (Ganz and Simpson2004 inJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 395 –409; Tincani et al.2006 inEducation and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41, 177 –184). The current study investigated delay to reinforcement and an increase in response effort when utilizing PECS on the development of intelligible word vocalizations with four elementary aged students. Three participants transitioned from primarily requesting using PECS at Phase IIIb to using independent vocalizations (i.e., spoken words). This research provides further evidence for the use of PECS not only as a tool for functional communication, but also as a resource for assisting individuals in the development of vocalizations with slight variations in the parameters of reinforcement including response effort and delay of reinforcement.
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Naomi Tistarelli, Corrado Fagnani, Miriam Troianiello, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Walter AdrianiAbstractAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children worldwide, and also the recognition of its persistence into adulthood is increasing. While ADHD in childhood is highly heritable and mostly driven by familial factors, during adulthood it appears to show a lower heritability, even if there is not total agreement on this yet. This disorder often co-occurs with many othe...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ConclusionsStudies have focused predominantly on assessing transcription or translation/text generation skills with little systematic attention to relationships between writing and language domain or mediational systems skills. Reviewed studies offer preliminary findings, areas of needed future research, and implications for continued research into understanding and supporting the writing skill development of children with ASD.
Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Authors: Kurihara M, Ishiura H, Bannai T, Mitsui J, Yoshimura J, Morishita S, Hayashi T, Shimizu J, Toda T, Tsuji S Abstract Heterozygous mutations in KIF1A have been reported to cause syndromic intellectual disability or pure spastic paraplegia. However, their genotype-phenotype correlations have not been fully elucidated. We herein report a man with autism and hyperactivity along with sensory disturbance and spastic paraplegia, carrying a novel de novo mutation in KIF1A (c.37C>T [p.R13C]). Autism and hyperactivity have only previously been reported in a patient with c.38 G>A (R13H) mutation. This case sugge...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
ConclusionAll countries under study have incorporated the values of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in their respective education systems while emphasising the need to include as many children in the mainstream system as possible.
Source: Molecular Autism - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
This study examines the efficacy of the Japanese version of the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS), which focuses on improving social functioning through making friends and maintaining good relationships for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disabilities. Originally developed in the United States, PEERS is one of the few evidence-based social skills training programs for youth with ASD. The present study shows that with linguistic and cultural modifications, PEERS is effective in improving social functioning for adolescents with ASD in Japan. Positive re...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
AbstractMicrodeletions encompassing 14q11.2locus, involvingSUPT16H andCHD8, were shown to cause developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly. Variations leading toCHD8 haploinsufficiency or loss of function were also shown to lead to a similar phenotype. Recently, a 14q11.2 microduplication syndrome, encompassingCHD8 andSUPT16H, has been described, highlighting the importance of a tight control of at leastCHD8 gene-dosage for a normal development. There have been only a few reports of 14q11.2 microduplications. Patients showed variable neurodevelopmental issues of variable severi...
Source: Neurogenetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
An experienced trust chief executive has been chosen to lead a national taskforce group charged with improving inpatient mental health, learning disability and autism services for young people.
Source: HSJ - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
ConclusionThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights was a critical juncture in international policy and created an environment where the universal right to education has been implemented for all children in the countries under study.
Source: Molecular Autism - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The researchers that examined school aged children, all agreed that children with disabilities would benefit from the use of assistive technology. However, they also agree that teachers are not prepared to incorporate advanced technology in the classroom. The results also show that children with physical disabilities in preschool may be too young to independently use advanced technology.Implications for RehabilitationStudents with severe disabilities often have limited interactions with same age peers. Technology can provide a means to increase the quality and quantity of time interacting with young student's p...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology. - Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Tags: Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These insights provide a tool for reflection by educators and educational psychologists for considering how they might promote the participation of autistic pupils in different educational contexts. PMID: 31814112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The British Journal of Educational Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Br J Educ Psychol Source Type: research
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