Stem Cell-Derived Insulin-Producing β Cells to Treat Diabetes

AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdvances in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation protocols have enabled cellular replacement therapies to progress to clinical trials. In patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune disease eliminates the majority of islet β cells in the pancreas causing insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia.  The only treatment option for patients with T1D is injection of exogenous insulin. Clinical trials of allogeneic islet transplants in immunosuppressed patients have demonstrated that β cell replacement therapies are capable of C-peptide production and glycemic control. However, broad applicability of this therapy is limited by donor islet scarcity, variable cell quality and the risks and toxicities associated with immunosuppression. This review will discuss the development and clinical translation of a second-generation β cell replacement therapy for diabetes, hPSC-derived β cells.Recent FindingsImprovements in hPSC differentiation and large-scale culture coupled with innovative macrodevice biomaterials and designs will expedite clinical entry of hPSC-derived β cells.SummaryStem cell-derived β cell replacement therapy offers a promising treatment strategy for Type 1 diabetes patients.
Source: Current Transplantation Reports - Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

Related Links:

AbstractPurpose of ReviewType 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which the immune cells selectively destroy the pancreatic beta ( β) cells and results in the deficiency of insulin production. The optimal treatment strategy for T1D should be preventing of β-cell destruction in the pancreas. The purpose of this review is to discuss the immunological therapeutic mechanisms that will help to understand the development and contro l of β-cell destruction. The review also presents a novel method for development of autoantigen (Ag)-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) for T1D immunotherapy.Recent FindingsPa...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting from the destruction of insulin-secreting islet β cells by autoreactive T cells. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice are the widely used animal model for huma...
Source: Stem Cell Research and Therapy - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: ROS promote CD8+ T cell activation by facilitating autoantigen cross-presentation by DCs. ROS scavengers could potentially represent an important component of therapies aiming to disrupt autoantigen presentation and activation of CD8+ T cells in individuals at-risk for developing T1D. In Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), pancreatic β cells are attacked by a T cell mediated autoimmune response and lose their ability to produce insulin (1–3). While a number of immune cell subsets are involved throughout the development of T1D, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs) function as primary effectors of β cell damag...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Qiancheng Deng1, Yangyang Luo1,2, Christopher Chang3, Haijing Wu1, Yan Ding4* and Rong Xiao1* 1Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, Department of Dermatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China 2Department of Dermatology, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China 3Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States 4Department of Dermatology, Hainan Provincial Dermatology Disease Hospital, Haikou, China Autoimmune diseases are usually complex and multifactorial, characterized by aberrant produc...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions The concept of osteoimmunology is aging well, almost 20 years since the term was coined. This way of interpreting bone and the immune system has been steadily providing new insights about how the two of them operate and cooperate. As an example, the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in promoting osteoclastogenesis, and the many parallelisms between immune cells and osteoclasts have proved crucial to understand the biology of these giant bone-eating cells. Intriguingly, the control mechanisms between bone and the immune system are complex, tightly interconnected, and involve many players. The underlying comple...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Discussion Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 is an essential molecule for maintaining immune homeostasis and subverting inflammation. Disorders arising from excess inflammation or SOCS1 deficiency can be potentially treated with SOCS1 mimetics (Ahmed et al., 2015). While SOCS1 has promising potential in many disorders, it should be noted that new targets and actions of SOCS1 are still being discovered and not all the effects of this protein are beneficial in autoimmune diseases and cancer. For instance, SOCS1 degrades IRS1 and IRS2, required for insulin signaling, via the SOCS Box domain, thus, limiting its potential in ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Maria Schreiber1,2, Marc Weigelt1,3, Anne Karasinsky1, Konstantinos Anastassiadis4, Sonja Schallenberg2, Cathleen Petzold2, Ezio Bonifacio1,3*, Karsten Kretschmer2,3*† and Angela Hommel1,3*† 1Preclinical Approaches to Stem Cell Therapy/Diabetes, DFG-Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden Cluster of Excellence, Center for Molecular and Cellular Bioengineering, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany 2Molecular and Cellular Immunology/Immune Regulation, DFG-Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden Cluster of Excellence, Center for Molecular and Cellular Bioengineering, Technische Unive...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
More News: Autoimmune Disease | Clinical Trials | Diabetes | Diabetes Type 1 | Endocrinology | Insulin | Pancreas | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Toxicology | Transplant Surgery | Transplants