The Spatial Extent of Epiretinal Electrical Stimulation in the Healthy Mouse Retina.

CONCLUSION: The existence of significant hysteresis requires that future investigations of electrical retinal stimulation control for such long-memory adaptation. The spread of electrical activation beyond 200 µm suggests that neighbouring electrodes in epiretinal implants based on indirect stimulation of RGCs may be indiscriminable at interelectrode spacings as large as 400 µm. PMID: 28743131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neuro-Signals - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

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Abstract Besides apoptosis, necrosis can also occur in a highly regulated and genetically controlled manner, defined as regulated necrosis, which is characterized by a loss of cell membrane integrity and release of cytoplasmic content. Depending on the involvement of its signal pathway, regulated necrosis can be further classified as necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis and parthanatos. Numerous studies have demonstrated that regulated necrosis is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases covering almost all organs including the brain, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, blood vessel, eye and skin, particularly m...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Exp Eye Res Source Type: research
Authors: Cho C, Duong TT, Mills JA Abstract Patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been critical in advancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of numerous retinal disorders. Many of these retinal disorders have no effective treatment and result in severe visual impairment and even blindness. Among the retinal degenerative diseases modeled by iPSCs are age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). In addition to studying retinal disease ontogenesis and patholog...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is recognized as a contributing factor to various ocular neurovascular pathologies including retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy (DR). ER stress in particular is implicated in the development of DR, which is significantly influenced by inflammation driven retinal vascular degeneration and dysfunction. Ultimately, loss of vision occurs if left untreated. However, the identity of the target cells and their temporal involvement in diabetes-mediated dysfunction need further investigation. Early diabetes-induced stress in photoreceptor cells is proposed as...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Exp Eye Res Source Type: research
Authors: Esquiva G, Hannibal J Abstract Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) constitute a system in the mammalian retina used for irradiance detection, regulating non-image forming functions, such as photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, control of the pupillary light reflex, masking response, light-regulated melatonin secretion, and modulation of the sleep/wake cycle. There are five subtypes of mRGCs differentiated by morphology and function. Recent years of research on mRGCs have identified a broad number of neurodegenerative diseases in the eye and the brain with altered physiologic light respon...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results point towards a role of HDACs in RGC degeneration and identify HDAC1/3 and HDAC4/5 as potential therapeutic targets to treat degenerative retinal diseases.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Juncai He1,2, Congjian Zhao1,2, Jiaman Dai1,2, Chuan Huang Weng1,2, Bai Shi Jiao Bian1,2, Yu Gong1,2, Lingling Ge1,2, Yajie Fang1,2, Hui Liu1,2, Haiwei Xu1,2* and Zheng Qin Yin1,2* 1Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Amy Medical University), Chongqing, China 2Key Lab of Visual Damage and Regeneration and Restoration of Chongqing, Chongqing, China Resident microglia are the main immune cells in the retina and play a key role in the pathogenesis of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Many previous studies on the roles of microglia mainly focused on the neurotoxicity or neuroprotec...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Light-Induced Pupillary Responses in Alzheimer's Disease Pratik S. Chougule1, Raymond P. Najjar1,2, Maxwell T. Finkelstein1, Nagaendran Kandiah3,4 and Dan Milea1,2,5* 1Department of Visual Neurosciences, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore 2The Ophthalmology &Visual Sciences ACP, Duke-National University of Singapore (NUS) Medical School, Singapore, Singapore 3Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, Singapore 4Duke-National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore, Singapore 5Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore The impact of Alzheimer&...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study defines a new clinically relevant concept of T-cell senescence-mediated inflammatory responses in the pathophysiology of abnormal glucose homeostasis. We also found that T-cell senescence is associated with systemic inflammation and alters hepatic glucose homeostasis. The rational modulation of T-cell senescence would be a promising avenue for the treatment or prevention of diabetes. Intron Retention via Alternative Splicing as a Signature of Aging https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/03/intron-retention-via-alternative-splicing-as-a-signature-of-aging/ In recent years researchers have inv...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Retinal degeneration causes blindness by destroying the photoreceptor cells in the retina. Some forms of degenerative blindness leave intact other cell populations, however. What if those populations could be granted some of the same mechanisms used by photoreceptor cells to pass signals to the optic nerve? Researchers here demonstrate a gene therapy that does just this, a most interesting feat of engineering. It is still a poor alternative to prevention of the condition, or restoration of lost photoreceptor cells, but it is no less impressive for it. This is truly an age of biotechnology. Scientists inserted a ge...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Michael Telias, Bristol Denlinger, Zachary Helft, Casey Thornton, Billie Beckwith-Cohen, Richard H. KramerSummaryLight responses are initiated in photoreceptors, processed by interneurons, and synaptically transmitted to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which send information to the brain. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding disease caused by photoreceptor degeneration, depriving downstream neurons of light-sensitive input. Photoreceptor degeneration also triggers hyperactive firing of RGCs, obscuring light responses initiated by surviving photorece...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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