Learning a talker or learning an accent: Acoustic similarity constrains generalization of foreign accent adaptation to new talkers
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 97 Author(s): Xin Xie, Emily B. Myers Past research has revealed that native listeners use top-down information to adjust the mapping from speech sounds to phonetic categories. Such phonetic adjustments help listeners adapt to foreign-accented speech. However, the mechanism by which talker-specific adaptation generalizes to other talkers is poorly understood. Here we asked what conditions induce cross-talker generalization in talker accent adaptation. Native-English listeners were exposed to Mandarin-accented words, produced by a single talker or multiple talkers. Following exposure, adaptation to the accent was tested by recognition of novel words in a task that assesses online lexical access. Crucially, test words were novel words and were produced by a novel Mandarin-accented talker. Results indicated that regardless of exposure condition (single or multiple talker exposure), generalization was greatest when the talkers were acoustically similar to one another, suggesting that listeners were not developing an accent-wide schema for Mandarin talkers, but rather attuning to the specific acoustic–phonetic properties of the talkers. Implications for general mechanisms of talker generalization in speech adaptation are discussed.
CONCLUSIONS: Data on the impact of rapid, cloud-enabled, onsite testing on patient health, care delivery, and clinical decision-making is scarce. More robust real-world data would confirm the validity of our model. Rapid, cloud-enabled, onsite testing has the potential to generate significant value to payers. PMID: 30019600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Publication date: June 2018Source: Research in Veterinary Science, Volume 118Author(s): Philip J. Pedersen, Kirsten B. Thomsen, Jon B. Flak, Maria A. Tejada, Frank Hauser, Dagmar Trachsel, Rikke Buhl, Theodore Kalbfleisch, Michael Scott DePriest, James N. MacLeod, Kirstine Calloe, Dan A. Klaerke
In this study, the differential protein expression of the acidophilic halophile, Acidihalobacter prosperus DSM 14174 (strain V6) was studied with the aim of understanding its mechanisms of tolerance to high chloride ion stress in the presence of low pH, using Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS). In acidophiles, chloride stress results in both osmotic stress as well as acidification of the cytoplasm due to the ability of chloride to permeate the cell membrane and disrupt the reversed transmembrane potential which normally extrudes protons. The proteomic response of Ac. prosperus DSM 1417...
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Carmen Falagán, D. Barrie JohnsonAbstractThe ability of acidophilic bacteria to grow in the presence of elevated concentrations of cationic transition metals, though varying between species, has long been recognized to be far greater than that of most neutrophiles. Conversely, their sensitivity to both inorganic and organic anions, with the notable exception of sulfate, has generally been considered to be far more pronounced. We have compared the tolerance of different species of mineral-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobac...
Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Research in Microbiology, Volume 169, Issue 6Author(s):
Authors: Khan AO Abstract PURPOSE: Early-onset retinal dystrophy is usually isolated but can also be the presenting manifestation of an undiagnosed systemic disease. The purpose of this report is to highlight the initial presentation of a girl with early-onset retinal dystrophy and chronic dermatitis who was found to have an undiagnosed congenital disorder of glycosylation (SRD5A3-CDG). METHODS: Retrospective case report. RESULTS: A 13-year-old Baluchi girl was referred for evaluation of low vision since soon after birth. Clinical exam confirmed retinal dystrophy. She also had developmental disability and c...
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Journal of Microbiological MethodsAuthor(s): Nagaraja R. Thirumalapura, Willard Feria, Deepanker TewariAbstractWe evaluated three DNA extraction methods for confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from liquid cultures of bovine feces. Use of DNA Extract All Reagents Kit™ resulted in efficient extraction of amplifiable DNA from higher proportion (96.29%) of known positive samples compared to Chelex-100 resin (25.92%) and polyethylene glycol (0%).
CONCLUSION: The CFs, PGs and lamellae had degenerated, caused by swelling. 3D imaging demonstrated that the impairment of the microfibrils and PGs within the CF, is caused by the excessive hydration or swelling in the anterior as well as in the middle and posterior stroma. The lamellae of the anterior stroma which provides the biomechanical strength in the normal cornea, had degenerated in the swollen corneas due to the presence of the damaged CFs and PGs. PMID: 30019745 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
In this study, we propose a class of generalized Friedman urns with random entries. The class has the property of self-equilibrium. We prove the almost-sure convergence to the equilibrium point of this entire class by the method of stochastic approximation. We develop a central limit theorem for the proportion of white balls through the convergence theorem of stochastic approximation algorithms. We then apply this class of schemes to model the effect of trading on the price in the stock market under the efficient market hypothesis.
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Statistics &Probability LettersAuthor(s): Holger fink, Georg schlüchtermannAbstractWe prove a general Picard–Lindelöf-type framework for stochastic differential equations driven by Mandelbrot–Van Ness fractional Lévy processes. This allows us to derive the existence of a fractional Lévy Cox–Ingersoll–Ross and Jacobi model with almost surely positive, respectively bounded, samples paths.