Outcomes of multi-trauma road traffic crashes at a tertiary hospital in Oman: does attendance by trauma surgeons versus non-trauma surgeons make a difference? - Al-Kashmiri A, Al-Shaqsi SZ, Al-Marhoobi N, Hasan M.

This study aimed to assess the outcomes of multi-trauma road tr...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news

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BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood abuse (CA) is often related to severe co-occurring psychopathology, such as symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The ICD-11 has included Complex PTSD as a new diagnosis, which i...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder avoid trauma-related stimuli and exhibit blunted hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response at the time of trauma. Our laboratory uses predator odor (i.e. bobcat urine) stress to divide adult Wistar rats into groups that exhibit high (avoiders) or low (nonavoiders) avoidance of a predator odor-paired context, modeling the fact that not all humans exposed to traumatic events develop psychiatric conditions. Male avoiders exhibit lower body weight gain after stress, as well as extinction-resistant avoidance that persists after a second stress exposure. These animal...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
We present the hypothesis that altered stress reactivity as a result of brain injury impacts the amygdala and defense systems to be vulnerable to increased fear and PTSD development from traumatic stress. Identifying biological mechanisms that underlie this vulnerability, such as dysregulated HPA axis function, may lead to better targeted treatments and preventive measures to support psychological health after TBI.
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
In this review, we advocate a dimensional approach on the basis of candidate endophenotypes to the development of animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) capable of including genetic liability factors, variations in symptoms profile and underlying neurobiological mechanisms, and specific comorbidities. Results from the clinical literature pointed to two candidate endophenotypes of PTSD: low sensory gating and high waiting impulsivity. Findings of comparative studies in mice of two inbred strains characterized by different expressions of the two candidate endophenotypes showed different strain-specific neural...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
Understanding the neurobiological basis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is fundamental to accurately diagnose this neuropathology and offer appropriate treatment options to patients. The lack of pharmacological effects, too often observed with the most currently used drugs, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), makes even more urgent the discovery of new pharmacological approaches. Reliable animal models of PTSD are difficult to establish because of the present limited understanding of the PTSD heterogeneity and of the influence of various environmental factors that trigger the disorder in humans. W...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
Serotonin, one of the first neurotransmitters to be identified, is an evolutionarily old molecule that is highly conserved across the animal kingdom, and widely used throughout the brain. Despite this, ascribing a specific set of functions to brain serotonin and its receptors has been difficult and controversial. The 2A subtype of serotonin receptors (5-HT2A receptor) is the major excitatory serotonin receptor in the brain and has been linked to the effects of drugs that produce profound sensory and cognitive changes. Numerous studies have shown that this receptor is upregulated by a broad variety of stressors, and have re...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
In conclusion, edaravone ameliorated oxidative stress and cognitive impairment associated with a PTSD model, probably by supporting antioxidant mechanism in the hippocampus.
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: RESEARCH REPORTS Source Type: research
Early-life stress (ELS) is known to exert long-term effects on brain function, with resulting deleterious consequences for several aspects of mental health, including the development of addiction to drugs of abuse. One potential mechanism in humans is suggested by findings that ELS interacts with polymorphisms of the GABRA2 gene, encoding α2 subunits of GABAA receptors, to increase the risk for both post-traumatic stress disorder and vulnerability to cocaine addiction. We used a mouse model, in which the amount of material for nest building was reduced during early postnatal life, to study interactions between ELS an...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: RESEARCH REPORTS Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 March 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Ping Mu, Yanhua H. HuangAbstractSleep profoundly regulates our emotional and motivational state of mind. Human brain imaging and animal model studies are providing initial insights on the underlying neural mechanisms. Here, we focus on the brain cholinergic system, including cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, ventral striatum, habenula, and brain stem. Although much is learned about cholinergic regulations of emotion and motivation, less is known on their interactions with sleep. Specifically, we present an anatomical framew...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
This study investigated the prevalence of work‐related traumatic events, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression among Dutch midwives. Additionally, differences between midwives working i n primary care (independently assisting births at home and in birthing centers) and midwives working in secondary or tertiary care (hospital setting) were examined. Finally, this study investigated the support midwives would like to receive after experiencing a work‐related adverse event.MethodsA descriptive, cross ‐sectional online survey of Dutch midwives was conducted. The respondents completed a questionnai...
Source: Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health - Category: Midwifery Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
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