Association between universal hepatitis B prison vaccination, vaccine uptake and hepatitis B infection among people who inject drugs

This study aimed to compare rates of HBV vaccine uptake before and after implementation of the prison programme and to estimate the determinants of vaccine uptake, the levels of ever/current HBV infection and the associations between vaccine uptake and ever/current HBV infection. DesignData collected via serial cross‐sectional surveys were used to compare the proportion who reported being vaccinated over time. For the 2013‐14 survey, rates of ever/current HBV infection were calculated and the associations between vaccine uptake and ever/current HBV infection were examined using logistic regression. SettingServices providing injecting equipment and drug treatment, and street sites, in Glasgow (1993–2002) and across Scotland (2008–2014). ParticipantsMore than 10,000 PWID in total were recruited in the surveys. MeasurementsParticipants completed a questionnaire (all years) to ascertain self‐reported vaccine uptake and provided a blood spot (in 2013‐14), tested for HBV core antibodies (anti‐HBc) and surface antigen (HBsAg). FindingsAmong recent‐onset PWID in Glasgow, vaccine uptake increased from 16‐20% in 1993‐99 to 52‐59% in 2001‐2014 (p
Source: Addiction - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract More than 750,000 persons in the United States inject opioids, methamphetamine, cocaine, or ketamine, and that number is increasing because of the current opioid epidemic. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at higher risk of infectious and noninfectious skin, pulmonary, cardiac, neurologic, and other causes of morbidity and mortality. Nonjudgmental inquiries about current drug use can uncover information about readiness for addiction treatment and identify modifiable risk factors for complications of injection drug use. All PWID should be screened for human immunodeficiency virus infection, latent tuberc...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research
This study aims to identify the epidemiological features of HBV among pregnant Iranian women. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Two authors independently searched several online databases without time limit until May 2017. The databases include Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, IranDoc, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The data were analyzed based on a random-effects model using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software version 2. Thirty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of HBV ...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Despite limited hepatitis and HIV screening in MMT programs nationally, this study shows that testing can be incorporated into routine procedures. MMT programs are positioned to play an integral role in the identification of patients with chronic infections, but additional guidance and resources are required to maximize their impact.
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
Conclusion Medical examiners are putting the blame on parents for co-sleeping, while completely ignoring the vaccines given to the child hours or days before, when investigating these infant deaths. They will also relate an infant’s death to poisoning of the body due to something the child ingested or inhaled, but not from the poisons injected through the vaccines. [29] In the state of Louisiana, health officials have been applauded for having fairly high vaccination rates, but at the same time, Louisiana has consistently been ranked one of the worst states in the nation for having high infant mortality rates, but no...
Source: - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Augustina Ursino Case Reports on Vaccine Injury Human Recent Articles Top Picks Top Stories Aysia Hope Clark Lafayette General Medical Center National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program Recombivax Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsUsing financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion in people who inject drugs could be a cost‐effective use of healthcare resources in the UK as long as the incidence remains above 1.2%.
Source: Addiction - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
Two month-old Reid Thomas Englehart was vaccinated on May 20, 2015. He was given eight vaccine doses, which included the DTaP, Hib, polio, pneumococcal, hepatitis B and the oral rotavirus vaccines. These are the routine vaccines given to two month-old babies, even premature babies, in the United States and elsewhere. [1] At the time of his appointment, Reid was still wheezing from a previous infection and still had a residual cough, but his doctor insisted it was fine to vaccinate him, after a test came back that Reid was negative for pertussis. Nine days later, without a struggle and without any obstruction of his airways...
Source: - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Augustina Ursino Case Reports on Vaccine Injury Human DTaP vaccine Hepatitis B vaccine HiB Pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7) Polio Vaccine Reid Thomas Englehart Rotavirus Vaccine Vaccine Death Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: The promotion of these evaluations proved beneficial, although viral screening could be achieved for only approaching half of the detainees, as could alcohol consumption assessment and HBV vaccination for those concerned. Fibrosis screening revealed lesions in HCV carriers yet also in heavy drinkers, who are typically less likely to be assessed. Consultations and HIV screening on release were found to be rarely possible.
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tags: Alcohol and substance abuse Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our results highlight the fact that efforts to prevent and test for infections and to promote vaccination against HAV and HBV in heroin users need to be continued.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:181-191
Source: European Addiction Research - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
MACHIAS, Maine (AP) -- Public health agencies and drug treatment centers nationwide are scrambling to battle an explosive increase in cases of hepatitis C, a scourge they believe stems at least in part from a surge in intravenous heroin use. In response, authorities are instituting or considering needle exchange programs but are often stymied by geography - many cases are in rural areas - and the cost of treatment in tight times. In Washington County, at the nation's eastern edge, the rate of the acute form of hepatitis C last year was the highest in a state that was already more than triple the national average. The probl...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) hepatitis is extremely common among problematic drug users (DUs). As of 2012, 47 of the 53 European countries had implemented a universal hepatitis B vaccination programme, a scenario that could radically change its spread. Even so, drug users are still one of the main groups at risk of being infected by HBV, exposing the fact that universal vaccination still has not managed to reach an optimal level of contagion protection. In order to evaluate the role of universal HBV vaccination in protecting against risk behaviour related to the use of illicit drugs, a group of 748 DUs, 511 male and 237 female,...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
More News: Addiction | Hepatitis | Hepatitis B | Hepatitis Vaccine | Scotland Health | Study | Vaccines