Labmade smallpox is possible, study shows
No viral infection has shaped human history more profoundly than smallpox. Although it was eradicated by a world-wide vaccination program by 1980, several fundamental challenges remain. There is an unacceptable incidence of morbidity and mortality after vaccinia virus (VACV) vaccine, particularly in individuals with atopic disorders. Therefore, less virulent variants of VAVC have been sought and a replication deficient variants of VACV, modified vaccinia ankara (MVA), has been developed. In all prior studies in humans, MVA has been delivered via intramuscular (im) injection.
Skin keratinocytes (KCs) are epithelial cells important for skin integrity and immunological responses. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large cytoplasmic DNA virus that belongs to the poxvirus family. Skin scarification with vaccinia virus has led to successful eradiation of smallpox. Vaccinia E3 is a key virulence factor composed of a Z-DNA-binding domain and a dsRNA-binding domain. We have shown that a mutant VACV lacking E3L gene (E3L) infection of murine KCs induces ifnb, Ccl4, Ccl5, and Il6 gene expression, whereas wild-type (WT) VACV does not.
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018 Source:Social Science & Medicine Author(s): Romola Jane Davenport, Max Satchell, Leigh Matthew William Shaw-Taylor Smallpox is regarded as an ancient and lethal disease of humans, however very little is known about the prevalence and impact of smallpox before the advent of vaccination (c.1800). Here we use evidence from English burial records covering the period 1650–1799 to confirm a striking geography to smallpox patterns. Smallpox apparently circulated as a childhood disease in northern England and Sweden, even where population densities were low and settlement...
CONCLUSIONS: The healthcare professional is a key element to transmit information, resolve doubts and increase confidence in vaccines. They must be prepared to face this new challenge. PMID: 29654748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Abstract Numerous attempts to produce antiviral vaccines by harnessing memory CD8 T cells have failed. A barrier to progress is that we do not know what makes an Ag a viable target of protective CD8 T cell memory. We found that in mice susceptible to lethal mousepox (the mouse homolog of human smallpox), a dendritic cell vaccine that induced memory CD8 T cells fully protected mice when the infecting virus produced Ag in large quantities and with rapid kinetics. Protection did not occur when the Ag was produced in low amounts, even with rapid kinetics, and protection was only partial when the Ag was produced in lar...
On 7 April, World Health Day, the World Health Organization marks its 70th anniversary. Over the past 7 decades, WHO has spearheaded efforts to rid the world of killer diseases like smallpox and to fight against deadly habits like tobacco use. This year, World Health Day is dedicated to one of WHO ’s founding principles: “The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition.”
Vaccines were one of the great inventions of modern history. They helped stop America’s polio epidemic in the 1950s, when it was paralyzing thousands and killing at least 3,000 a year. They have prevented the deaths of millions worldwide from diseases such as diphtheria, smallpox, measles and tetanus. And yet many people are reluctant to get their shots […]Related:In case you missed the ‘condom-snorting challenge’ — and didn’t know it’s a bad ideaAs controversial ‘abortion reversal’ laws increase, researcher says new data shows protocol can workA woman s...
The health of people with low incomes historically has been a driver of public health advances in the United States. For example, in New York City, cholera deaths during outbreaks in 1832 and 1854 concentrated among the poor helped push forward the Metropolitan Health Law, which allowed for regulation of sanitary conditions in the city. The law was an exemplar for other municipalities across the United States, saving countless lives during subsequent cholera epidemics as well as from typhus, dysentery, and smallpox.
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) is a well renowned 18th century American author, diplomat and scientist. As one the Founding Fathers of the United States, he also made contributions to the study of physics, electricity and medicine. In addition to the study and promotion of smallpox inoculation he was instrumental to the development of bifocal glasses. Benjamin Franklin may also be credited for advancing the field of urology. He suffered from bladder stones and is theorized to have had multiple physiologic risk factors for developing uric acid urolithiasis.
CONCLUSION: The annual number of monkeypox outbreaks increases in the Central African Republic with severe presentations and a high case fatality especially in children. Reinforcing the surveillance and characterization of circulating strains will provide information on the need for vaccine production. PMID: 29573840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]