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Ubiquitination at the mitochondria in neuronal health and disease

Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Christian Covill-Cooke, Jack Howden, Nicol Birsa, Josef Kittler The preservation of mitochondrial function is of particular importance in neurons given the high energy requirements of action potential propagation and synaptic transmission. Indeed, disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control are linked to cellular pathology in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Here, we will discuss the role of ubiquitination by the E3 ligases: Parkin, MARCH5 and Mul1, and how they regulate mitochondrial homeostasis. Furthermore, given the role of Parkin and Mul1 in the formation of mitochondria-derived vesicles we give an overview of this area of mitochondrial homeostasis. We highlight how through the activity of these enzymes and MDV formation, multiple facets of mitochondrial biology can be regulated, ensuring the functionality of the mitochondrial network thus preserving neuronal health.
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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This study developed the first procedure for the removal of epithelium from the lung airway with the full preservation of vascular epithelium, which could be applied in vivo to treat diseases of lung epithelium. Whole lung scaffolds with an intact vascular network may also allow for recellularization using patient-specific cells and bioengineering of chimeric lungs for transplantation. In addition to the clinical potential, lung scaffolds lacking an intact epithelial layer but with functional vascular and interstitial compartments may also serve as a valuable physiological model for investigating (i) lung development, (ii)...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, KPE delays intrinsic skin aging process by inhibiting cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction. KPE does not only attenuate cellular senescence through inhibition of the p53/p21, p16/pRb, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways but also improve mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1α stimulation. Consequently, KPE prevents wrinkle formation, skin atrophy, and loss of elasticity by increasing collagen and elastic fibers in hairless mice. The Society for the Rescue of our Elders https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2017/08/the-society-for-the-rescue-of-our-elders/ The Society for the...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Each year, the SENS Research Foundation accepts a group of young life science academics and puts them to work on projects in aging research, both at the foundation and in allied laboratories, creating ties between research groups that can help to advance the state of the art. This year's batch has worked on a diverse set of projects that spread out beyond core SENS initiatives such as allotopic expression of mitochondrial genes. Reading through their projects is a reminder that a great deal can be accomplished these days given a small team, a little funding, and an equipped laboratory. Progress in medical research is no lo...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017 Source:Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Author(s): P. Kurian, T.O. Obisesan, T.J.A. Craddock Oxidative stress is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative tauopathic disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease-related dementia, which are characterized by altered forms of the microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau. MAP tau is a key protein in stabilizing the microtubule architecture that regulates neuron morphology and synaptic strength. When MAP tau is degraded in tauopathic disorders, neuron dysfunction results. The precise role...
Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Mitochondrial inhibition in vitro occurred at a CPC concentration that may be relevant to human exposures. The antiestrogenic activity of CPC, BAK, rotenone, and triclosan may be related to their mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Our findings support the need for additional research on the mitochondrial inhibitory and antiestrogenic effects of QUATS, including CPC and BAK. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1404 Received: 22 November 2016 Revised: 04 May 2017 Accepted: 09 May 2017 Published: 22 August 2017 Address correspondence to G. Cortopassi, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive, Davis, CA 95616 USA. Phone: (530)...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Abstract Disruptions in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and the occurrence of proteins misfolding lead to neuronal death, resulting in Age-related Dementia and Neurodegenerative diseases as well as Frailty. Functional, neurophysiologic and biochemical alterations within the mitochondrial populations can reveal deficits in brain energy metabolism resulting in Mild Cognitive Impairment, abnormal neural development, autonomic dysfunction and other mitochondrial disorders. Additionally, in cases of Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease, a significant number of proteins seems to form unordered and problem...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research
This article reviews mechanisms which melatonin exerts its protective roles on mitochondria as a potential therapeutic strategy against neurodegenerative disorders. PMID: 28791420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, these data implied that excessive mitochondrial fission might inhibit mitochondrial complex I to become a cause of oxidative stress in SAH, and the inhibition of Drp1 by Mdivi-1 attenuated early brain injury after SAH probably via the suppression of inflammation-related blood-brain barrier disruption and endoplasmic reticulum stress-based apoptosis. PMID: 28790012 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research
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