Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel to Review the 2014 Smallpox (Variola) Virus Incident on the NIH (National Institutes of Health) Campus

National Institutes of Health. 05/2017 This 50-page document is the report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Blue Ribbon Panel appointed to review the July 2014 discovery of six vials containing variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, as well as over 300 other previously undiscovered biological samples on the NIH Bethesda, MD, campus. The panel identified several key factors that contributed to the smallpox virus incident, and noted several specific problematic issues relating to the immediate response after discovery of the smallpox virus and other samples. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: news

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Nature, Published online: 27 November 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03636-8In 1796, English physician Edward Jenner introduced the first vaccine, for smallpox, when he infected a young boy with cowpox. In the years since, vaccines — a name derived from the Latin word for cow — have been developed for many diseases, saving millions of lives. But the fight to conquer infectious disease continues.
Source: Nature AOP - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. In Cameroon, human monkeypox cases were confirmed in 2018, and outbreaks in captive chimpanzees occurred in 2014 and 2016. We investigated the OPXV serological status among staff at a primate sanctuary (where the 2016 chimpanzee outbreak occurred) and residents from nearby villages, and describe contact with possible monkeypox reservoirs. We focused specifically on Gambian rats (Cricetomys spp.) because it is a recognized possible reservoir and because contact with this species was common enough to render suffi...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
It has been over a century since Noon and Freeman began injecting allergic patients with allergens.1-4 Their rationale was based on the work of Edward Jenners, who had demonstrated that injecting cow pox conveyed immunity to smallpox. Surprisingly, Noon and Freeman were right. Not only did they “cure” many of their patients, they did not kill any of them. However, they did have to administer epinephrine a few times during “rapid desensitization.” Interesting, they realized early on that “leisurely inoculations” (ie, conventional buildup schedules) were inconvenient for the pati ents and ...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Foreword Source Type: research
The modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine protected against variola infection among members of the U.S. Army, and did not raise safety concerns, the pivotal trial revealed.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Allergy Headlines - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news
  The topic of childhood vaccination has become increasingly tendentious in recent years.  While ‘vaccine hesitancy’—a term that encompasses a wide range of attitudes, from those who have some misgivings about vaccination to those who refuse all vaccinations for their children—has existed ever since Edward Jenner developed the smallpox vaccine in 1798, many point to a now retracted 1998 paper in The Lancet as the origin of today’s particular brand of vaccine hesitancy. In the United States, there are three ways by which a child can be exempt from vaccination.  State laws differ ...
Source: blog.bioethics.net - Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Tags: Health Care Adolescent Health Author: Bunch syndicated vaccines Source Type: blogs
Clinical / Antimicrobial
Source: FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research - What's New - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: news
The smallpox vaccine has eradicated the potentially deadly disease. Anyone who has received this vaccination may notice that it left a scar. Learn more in this article.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases / Bacteria / Viruses Source Type: news
New England Journal of Medicine,Volume 381, Issue 20, Page 1897-1908, November 2019.
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractThe first written record of intervention against what later came to be known as an infectious disease was in the early seventeenth century by a Buddhist nun. She dried 3 to 4 wk old scabs from patients with mild smallpox and asked well people to inhale the powder. More than a century later in 1796, Edward Jenner described vaccination against smallpox by using cowpox that later was found to be caused by cowpox virus which is non-pathogenic for humans. Another century later in 1890, Robert Koch published the Koch ’s Postulates allowing the study of pathogenic bacteria and subsequently the study of agents to fig...
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
If you take blood pressure medication (and a lot of people do, or should)a new study find that taking them at night instead of morning cuts your risk of cardiac events in half, including death. Normally we like to provide information on absolute rather than relative risk, so here it is:Commenting on the findings, Tim Chico, professor of cardiovascular medicine at the University of Sheffield, UK, said, “The results are impressive. From the 19 084 people who took part and were randomised to taking their tablets at either bedtime or morning, just over 9% suffered a heart problem over the 6.4 years of the study. O...
Source: Stayin' Alive - Category: American Health Source Type: blogs
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