Evidence that activation of P2X7R does not exacerbate neuronal death after optic nerve transection and focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

Evidence that activation of P2X7R does not exacerbate neuronal death after optic nerve transection and focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Exp Neurol. 2017 Jun 29;: Authors: Caglayan B, Caglayan AB, Beker MC, Yalcin E, Beker M, Kelestemur T, Sertel E, Ozturk G, Kilic U, Sahin F, Kilic E Abstract Conflicting data in the literature about the function of P2X7R in survival following ischemia necessitates the conductance of in-depth studies. To investigate the impacts of activation vs inhibition of the receptor on neuronal survival as well as the downstream signaling cascades, in addition to optic nerve transection (ONT), 30min and 90min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) models were performed in mice. Intracellular calcium levels were assessed in primary cortical neuron cultures. Here, we show that P2X7R antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) decreased DNA fragmentation, infarct volume, brain swelling, neurological deficit scores and activation of microglial cells after focal cerebral ischemia. BBG also significantly increased the number of surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after ONT and the number of surviving neurons following MCAo. Importantly, receptor agonist BzATP resulted in increased activation of microglial cells and induced phosphorylation of ERK, AKT and JNK. These results indicated that inhibition of P2X7R with BBG promoted neuronal survival, not through the activation of survival kinase pathways, but possibly by improved intracellular Ca(2...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: This study described the characteristic of CG, number of its nerve root and some measurements relevant to intraorbital procedures in Asian population. Moreover, a new parameter was the distance between CG and scleral insertion of the lateral rectus muscle. This parameter should be considered when performing operation involved the lateral rectus muscle and BTX-A injection to lateral rectus muscle to reduce CG injury. PMID: 31621056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Folia Morphologica - Category: Anatomy Tags: Folia Morphol (Warsz) Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and TraumaAuthor(s): Vikas Vikas, Naval Bhatia, Jyoti GargAbstractEntrapment of posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) can be due to fracture dislocation of elbow, fibrous arcade of Frohse, neoplasms (lipoma, schwannoma), ganglion cysts and rheumatoid synovitis. Parosteal lipomas are extremely rare. These tumors grow slowly and as they grow, they can compress a nearby nerve producing sensory and motor disturbances. Till date less than 50 cases of PIN entrapment due to parosteal lipoma have been reported in literature. However, to the bes...
Source: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
We present an alternative method for studying these issues using the axonal transport of Herpes simplex virus in mature retinal neurons in vivo. Using genetically identical mice and carefully controlling the delivery of virus, an investigator can obtain insight into the transport of virus to and from the neuron cell body within the cellular environment of an intact, mature animal. This allows confirmation and extension of results seen in vitro. PMID: 31617195 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Herpes - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
It has been 45 years since Gunther Schlager used a cross breeding program in mice to develop inbred strains with high, normal, and low blood pressure (BPH/2, BPN/3, and BPL/1 respectively). Thus, it is timely to gather together the studies that have characterized and explored the mechanisms associated with the hypertension to take stock of exactly what is known and what remains to be determined. Growing evidence supports the notion that the mechanism of hypertension in BPH/2 mice is predominantly neurogenic with some of the early studies showing aberrant brain noradrenaline levels in BPH/2 compared with BPN/3. Analysis of ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) due to insufficient aqueous humor outflow through the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal (SC) is the most important risk factor for glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide. We previously reported loss of function mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase TEK or its ligand ANGPT1 cause primary congenital glaucoma in humans and mice due to failure of SC development. Here, we describe a novel approach to enhance canal formation in these animals by deleting a single allele of the gene encoding the phosphatase PTPRB during development. Compared toTek haploinsufficient mice, whic...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Developmental Biology Human Biology and Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONSG blockade modestly reduces resting HR but has no significant effect on HR during exercise. Permanent CSD may have a modest role on alleviating symptoms in selected patients with IST.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ‐ CLINICAL Source Type: research
ConclusionHemodynamic deficiencies and structural damage might have already begun in the perimetrically normal hemifields of NTG eyes. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether the reduction in MVD may precede structural changes or the reduction in vasculature and structural loss may vary with disease severity in at least in some cases.
Source: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
No abstract available
Source: Topics in Pain Management - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: CONTINUING EDUCATION ACTIVITY Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 3Author(s): Keun-Young Kim, Luis C. Rios, Hiep Le, Alex J. Perez, Sébastien Phan, Eric A. Bushong, Thomas J. Deerinck, Yu Hsin Liu, Maya A. Ellisman, Varda Lev-Ram, Suyeon Ju, Sneha A. Panda, Sanghee Yoon, Masatoshi Hirayama, Ludovic S. Mure, Megumi Hatori, Mark H. Ellisman, Satchidananda PandaSummaryThe form and synaptic fine structure of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells, also called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), were determined using a new membrane-targeted version of a genetic probe for correlated l...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Authors: Yin Y, De Lima S, Gilbert HY, Hanovice NJ, Peterson SL, Sand R, Sergeeva EG, Wong KA, Xie L, Benowitz LI Abstract The optic nerve conveys information about the outside world from the retina to multiple subcortical relay centers. Until recently, the optic nerve was widely believed to be incapable of re-growing if injured, with dire consequences for victims of traumatic, ischemic, or neurodegenerative diseases of this pathway. Over the past 10-20 years, research from our lab and others has made considerable progress in defining factors that normally suppress axon regeneration and the ability of retinal gangl...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research
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