'Painless' flu vaccine skin patch shows promise

Conclusion Further testing in larger trials needs to be done to be sure these initial results hold true and that the vaccine patch is safe and effective. This is the first time these flu microneedle patches have been tested on humans, and the study was relatively small, with only 100 participants. But if the results are confirmed, this new method of delivering the flu vaccination could make a big difference. The patches could have several main advantages over traditional injections: they may be preferred by people who dislike needles and avoid vaccination because of the fear of pain it may be quicker and easier to administer the vaccine yourself, than to make an appointment to have an injection the patches don't leave dangerous "sharps" waste that has to be carefully disposed of they don't have to be kept refrigerated, making it easier to store and distribute vaccines While the idea of a "no injection" vaccine sounds great if you don't like injections, they may have a much bigger impact in parts of the world where it's difficult to reach and administer vaccines with a continuous cold chain, and where health care staff are in short supply. This study is a good example of animal research that has successfully progressed through to human testing. Seven years ago the journal Nature Medicine published promising results of this flu vaccine patch tested in mice, which we discussed at the time. Now it looks as if this has the potential to become one of ...
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medical practice Medication Swine flu Source Type: news

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In this study, aqueous suspensions of various active ingredients (A.I.s) were utilized to generate Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS) nano-sanitizers, containing the A.I. utilized to produced them (termed iEWNS). These iEWNS had nanoscale size, were loaded with ROS and contained the A.I. utilized to produce them. They were challenged with Influenza H1N1/PR/8 and Acinetobacter baumannii on surfaces and in air. The results indicate that a nanogram dose of A.I. is effective in producing significant inactivation in Influenza H1N1/PR/8 and Acinetobacter baumannii.
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Peripheral neuropathies are the most frequent neurological complications associated with HIV, within which HIV sensory neuropathy (SN) is the most common form, which affects 30-50% of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. HIV SN is frequently manifested with hard-to-manage pain and is often under-diagnosed and/or under-treated. Tat, trans-activator of transcription, is a key activator of HIV transcription. Despite that recent studies have highlighted the role of HIV Tat in the pathophysiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), the involvement of HIV Tat in neuropathic pain associated with...
Source: The Journal of Pain - Category: Materials Science Authors: Source Type: research
Recent studies have indicated that the spinal activity of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor, GRPR, selectively modulate itching behaviors over other somatosensations including pain behaviors. Despite behavioral selectivity, how GRP acts within the spinal cord to selectively convey itch to the brain is not understood. Utilizing a novel ex vivo somatosensory preparation, retrograde labeling of spinal projection neurons, and multiphoton Ca2+ imaging, the activity of excitatory interneurons and projection neurons in the ex vivo spinal cord can be recorded in response to natural stimulation of the skin and pharma...
Source: The Journal of Pain - Category: Materials Science Authors: Source Type: research
Abdominal pain and bowel dysmotility are hallmark symptoms of functional bowel disorders, yet it is unclear how pain and dysmotility are correlated mechanistically. Extrinsic colon afferents (EPANs) provide sensory input to the CNS, and visceral pain is thought to be due to hypersensitivity of these afferents. The enteric nervous system (ENS) acts autonomously to control motility reflexes, but extrinsic nerve pathways coordinate activity between distant regions of the GI tract, and importantly, allow the central nervous system (CNS) to regulate GI functioning.
Source: The Journal of Pain - Category: Materials Science Authors: Source Type: research
There is a dire need for new non-opioid analgesics. However, efforts to develop new pain medicines have thus far met with limited success. This failure is partly due to an overreliance on evoked pain measures in preclinical models. Most preclinical models  do not measure spontaneous pain—the main symptom of chronic pain in humans. Here we show our progress towards developing and validating a fully-automated and user-friendly spontaneous pain measurement tool by training a machine learning model to detect and quantify facial grimacing in mice.
Source: The Journal of Pain - Category: Materials Science Authors: Source Type: research
Dissecting the spinal circuitry of pain and itch has been limited by a lack of genetic tools to label discrete subpopulations of spinal neurons. In particular, markers for spinal projection neurons are lacking, and thus the contributions of spinal projection neurons to somatosensation are largely unknown. Currently the only known marker for spinal projection neurons is neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), which captures the majority of spinal projection neurons. While neurotoxic ablation studies have provided evidence demonstrating the importance of NK1R spinal projection neurons to itch and hyperalgesia, interpretation of these ...
Source: The Journal of Pain - Category: Materials Science Authors: Source Type: research
Optogenetic techniques offer tremendous potential to elucidate the physiological roles of the various subtypes of peripheral sensory neurons. The range of behaviors that can be studied using optogenetics has been limited due to the challenge of delivering light to opsin-expressing cells in freely behaving animals without perturbing normal behaviors. Recent advances in micro-scale light emitting diodes ( μLEDs) and wireless powering technologies have allowed for the development of fully-wireless, implantable light-emitting devices to activate opsins in vivo.
Source: The Journal of Pain - Category: Materials Science Authors: Source Type: research
Ethnic group differences in pain perception and prevalence have been well documented. These disparities persist despite controlling for other factors (e.g., sex, socioeconomic status), suggesting differences in endogenous pain modulation. One potential mechanism underlying this disparity might be differences in mu-opioid receptor (MOPR) function, given that MOPRs critically contribute to pain modulation. Previous work demonstrated racial differences in the association between the MOPR gene (OPRM1) and pain perception; however, no study has reported whether differences in MOPR physiology support these genetic findings.
Source: The Journal of Pain - Category: Materials Science Authors: Tags: Systems (Physiology, Anatomy, Animal Models) Source Type: research
The management of chronic pain with opioids can cause opioid-induced analgesic tolerance (OIT) and hyperalgesia (OIH), which complicates clinical pain-management treatments. Although G-protein coupled receptors have been studied for years, the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by the activation of µ-opioid receptors are not well known. We sought to determine whether OIT is linked to a decreased activity in the PI3K/AKT intracellular signaling pathway. To assess this pathway, 25 C57BL/6 WT male mice (21 ± 4g) were divided into control (n=10, 1 μL saline) and experimental (n=10, 15 mg/kg of morphine;...
Source: The Journal of Pain - Category: Materials Science Authors: Source Type: research
We describe here a conditional GluN2B KO mouse used to assess the role of GluN2B subunits on agmatine's electrophysiological responses in spinal cord dorsal horn.
Source: The Journal of Pain - Category: Materials Science Authors: Source Type: research
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