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Papers of note in Science Translational Medicine 9 (394)

This week’s articles describe how broccoli can combat type 2 diabetes, how monocytes contribute to the failure of organ transplant grafts, and how to more durably treat RET- or KRAS-driven lung cancer.
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - Category: Science Authors: Tags: STKE Editors ' Choice Source Type: news

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Conclusions: These results suggest that strain-specific changes in chromatin and transcription in response to chemical exposure lead to a “compensation” for underlying genetic-driven interindividual differences in the baseline chromatin and transcriptional state. This work represents an example of how chemical and environmental exposures can be evaluated to better understand gene-by-environment interactions, and it demonstrates the important role of chromatin response in transcriptomic changes and, potentially, in deleterious effects of exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1937 Received: 21 March 2017 Revis...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Mechanisms involved in the relationship between type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and cancer is not completely understood, and even less is known about its association with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). While these systemic responses are reasonably well understood, an adequate explanation how health care utilization is impacted for patients with both T2D and NSCLC is lacking. Our objective was to investigate the cost of care for T2D patients with NSCLC.
Source: Value in Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
The objective of this study is to assess the utilization of diabetic NSCLC patients compared to NSCLC patients.
Source: Value in Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be higher compared to the general population as there is a likely association with hyperinsulinemia, which is a result of insulin resistance characteristic of T2D. Insulin's role in cell proliferation through the action of insulin-like growth factor-1, as well as inhibition of apoptosis, could play a significant role in the development of cancerous tissues. Our objective was to characterize the demographic differences in incident NSCLC patients with and without T2D.
Source: Value in Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: Peroral arsenic has little effect on local airway immune responses to bacteria but compromises respiratory epithelial barrier integrity, increasing systemic translocation of inhaled pathogens and small molecules. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1878 Received: 09 March 2017 Revised: 14 August 2017 Accepted: 16 August 2017 Published: 28 September 2017 Address correspondence to M.B. Fessler, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr., P.O. Box 12233, Maildrop D2-01, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 USA. Telephone: (919) 541-3701. Email: fesslerm@niehs.nih.gov *Current address: UN...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Despite what the textbooks say or how much research is devoted to substance use disorder, I still meet people who feel that addiction is a “choice,” and that these patients don’t need “treatment” (you made your bed, and now you can just lay in it). To a certain degree, this is true. Like Little Debbie cakes and type 2 diabetes, cigarettes and lung cancer, lack of exercise and essential hypertension, addiction does start with a choice. And instead of arguing about how this turns into a disease or trying to convince you to have a bit of compassion, I only wish to show others that: Addiction does...
Source: Kevin, M.D. - Medical Weblog - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Education Emergency Medicine Medical school Primary Care Source Type: blogs
Abstract BACKGROUND: Metformin (MF), a diabetic drug, has antineoplastic activity as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer and prostate cancer. MF is thought to work via inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin and activation of p53 and liver kinase B1 via adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase. We investigated survival, recurrences and metastasis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) along with colorectal cancer (CC) or lung cancer (LC) taking MF using the electronic medical record in Memphis Veterans Affairs Medical Center (colon, n = 202; lung, n = 180). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patien...
Source: The American Journal of the Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Med Sci Source Type: research
AbstractWe aimed to evaluate the criterion validity of the 2015 food-based Dutch dietary guidelines, which were formulated based on evidence on the relation between diet and major chronic diseases. We studied 9701 participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort in individuals aged 45  years and over [median 64.1 years (95%-range 49.0–82.8)]. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline with a food-frequency questionnaire. For all participants, we examined adherence (yes/no) to fourteen items of the guidelines: vegetables (≥200 g/day), fruit (≥200 g/day), whole-grains (&...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
"Nine lifestyle changes can reduce dementia risk," BBC News reports. A major review by The Lancet has identified nine potentially modifiable risk factors linked to dementia. The risk factors were: low levels of education midlife hearing loss physical inactivity high blood pressure (hypertension) type 2 diabetes obesity smoking depression social isolation However, it's important to note that even if you add up the percentage risk of all of these factors, they only account for about 35% of the overall risk of getting dementia. This means about 65% of the risk is still due to factors you can't co...
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Neurology QA articles Source Type: news
PMID: 28684163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Diabetes and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Diabetes Metab Source Type: research
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