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Papers of note in Science Translational Medicine 9 (394)

This week’s articles describe how broccoli can combat type 2 diabetes, how monocytes contribute to the failure of organ transplant grafts, and how to more durably treat RET- or KRAS-driven lung cancer.
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - Category: Science Authors: Tags: STKE Editors ' Choice Source Type: news

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Conclusion No manifesto will by itself change a two-thousand-year-old system, any more than Martin Luther’s 95 theses did. Establishments die hard: 100 years ago, in 1918, Max Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics, and in his Scientific Autobiography he talked about the adoption of change by any establishment: A new scientific truth does not win adoption by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but because its opponents eventually die. A manifesto can, though, kindle new thinking among those who do see the light. Planck continued: … and a new generation comes up that is familiar wi...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Empowered Patients Healthcare Design Healthcare Policy digital digital health doctor empowerment future Health 2.0 Innovation manifesto patient empowerment Personalized medicine philosophy technology Source Type: blogs
This study aimed to determine prognostic survival factors for diabetic patients with resected non‐small cell lung cancer. Patients and MethodsBetween January 2005 and December 2013, 301 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent curative resection for non‐small cell lung cancer were identified and reviewed retrospectively. ResultsThe median follow‐up period was 48 months. In multivariate analysis for lung cancer‐specific survival, older age, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)
Source: Journal of Surgical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Two medtech titans are teaming up to market a software GPS solution to detect lung cancer. Medtronic and Royal Philips announced the partnership and unveiled the jointly developed LungGPS Patient Management Platform earlier this week. To date, lung cancer remains the No. 1 cancer killer in the world, accounting for more cancer deaths than breast, colon, and prostate cancer combined, according to statistics from the American Cancer Society. “From my perspective, I think both organizations realize that more needs to be done to help transform lung cancer from a death sentence or deadly diseases, to something that is mor...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Business Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: Well-designed and well-conducted RCTs have shown no beneficial effect of selenium supplements in reducing cancer risk (high certainty of evidence). Some RCTs have raised concerns by reporting a higher incidence of high-grade prostate cancer and type 2 diabetes in participants with selenium supplementation. No clear evidence of an influence of baseline participant selenium status on outcomes has emerged in these studies.Observational longitudinal studies have shown an inverse association between selenium exposure and risk of some cancer types, but null and direct relations have also been reported, and no system...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
AbstractPyruvate carboxylase (PC), an anaplerotic enzyme, plays an essential role in various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, de novo fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Deregulation of PC expression or activity has long been known to be associated with metabolic syndrome in several rodent models. Accumulating data in the past decade clearly showed that deregulation of PC expression is associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, while targeted inhibition of PC expression in a mouse model reduced adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity in diet-induced ty...
Source: Journal of Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
This study aimed to examine the association between green tea intake and COPD with the use of a nationwide representative database.MethodsThis study was designed as a cross-sectional survey with the use of data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey collected between 2008 and 2015. Of these participants, 13,570 participants aged ≥40 y were included in the study population. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results suggest that strain-specific changes in chromatin and transcription in response to chemical exposure lead to a “compensation” for underlying genetic-driven interindividual differences in the baseline chromatin and transcriptional state. This work represents an example of how chemical and environmental exposures can be evaluated to better understand gene-by-environment interactions, and it demonstrates the important role of chromatin response in transcriptomic changes and, potentially, in deleterious effects of exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1937 Received: 21 March 2017 Revis...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Mechanisms involved in the relationship between type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and cancer is not completely understood, and even less is known about its association with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). While these systemic responses are reasonably well understood, an adequate explanation how health care utilization is impacted for patients with both T2D and NSCLC is lacking. Our objective was to investigate the cost of care for T2D patients with NSCLC.
Source: Value in Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
The objective of this study is to assess the utilization of diabetic NSCLC patients compared to NSCLC patients.
Source: Value in Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be higher compared to the general population as there is a likely association with hyperinsulinemia, which is a result of insulin resistance characteristic of T2D. Insulin's role in cell proliferation through the action of insulin-like growth factor-1, as well as inhibition of apoptosis, could play a significant role in the development of cancerous tissues. Our objective was to characterize the demographic differences in incident NSCLC patients with and without T2D.
Source: Value in Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
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