Tumor immune fitness determines survival of lung cancer patients
(La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology) In recent years, immunotherapy, a new form of cancer therapy that rouses the immune system to attack tumor cells, has captivated the public's imagination. When it works, the results are breathtaking. But more often than not it doesn't, and scientists still don't know why.
Conclusion: Although miR-126 relevant role in several immune-related diseases, further studies are needed to clear its molecular mechanisms; the final step of these novel researches could be the blockage or the prevention of the diseases onset by creating of new targeted therapy. PMID: 29743819 [PubMed]
Abstract CAPSULE SUMMARY: Our study demonstrates that miRNAs serve as critical epigenetic regulators in the ontogeny of LCs and TRMs in the skin and lungs, suggesting that miRNAs may be promising targets for LC and TRM-related allergic diseases. PMID: 29751006 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Abstract Background: The prevalence of respiratory allergy in children is increasing. Epigenetic DNA methylation changes are plausible underlying molecular mechanisms. Results: Saliva samples collected in substudies of two longitudinal birth cohorts in Belgium (FLEHS1 &FLEHS2) were used to discover and confirm DNA methylation signatures that can differentiate individuals with respiratory allergy from healthy subjects. Genome-wide analysis with Illumina Methylation 450K BeadChips revealed 23 differentially methylated gene regions (DMRs) in saliva from 11y old allergic children (N=26) vs. controls (N=20) in...
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source:Molecular and Cellular Probes Author(s): Jie Yang, Yi Chen, Zhi Yu, Hui Ding, Zhongfu Ma Long-term exposure to traffic-related pollutants can lead to a variety of respiratory diseases, including inflammation, asthma, and lung cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. We focused on the effects of exposure to different air pollutants on the expression of genes associated with inflammatory immune responses, allergic reactions and asthma, and lung cancer. In order to understand the cellular responses induced by exposure to different t...
Immune checkpoints are accessory molecules that either promote or inhibit T-cell activation. Two inhibitory molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), got high attention, as inhibition of CTLA-4 or PD-1 signaling provides the first immune therapy that significantly improves the survival of patients with metastatic solid cancers. Inhibition of CTLA-4 or PD-1 was first studied in and approved for patients with metastatic melanoma. Blocking immune checkpoints is also efficient in non –small-cell lung cancer, renal cell cancers, hypermutated gastrointestinal cancers, and others.
Immune checkpoints are accessory molecules that either promote or inhibit T cell activation. Two inhibitory molecules, cytotoxic T cell antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), got high attention, as inhibition of CTLA-4 or PD-1 signaling provides the first immune therapy that significantly improves the survival of patients with metastatic solid cancers. Inhibition of CTLA-4 or PD-1 was first studied in and approved for patients with metastatic melanoma. Blocking immune checkpoints is also efficient in non-small-cell lung cancer, renal cell cancers, hypermutated gastro-intestinal cancers and others.
A particular characteristic of non –small cell lung cancer is the composition of the tumor microenvironment with a very high proportion of fibroblastic stromal cells (FSCs).
A particular characteristic of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the composition of the tumor microenvironment with a very high proportion of fibroblastic stromal cells (FSC).
Merck&Co on Friday said quarterly sales of its Keytruda cancer immunotherapy exceeded $1 billion for the first time, but it withdrew an application for European use of the drug in lung cancer, raising questions about future sales.Reuters Health Information
Conclusions: These results suggest that strain-specific changes in chromatin and transcription in response to chemical exposure lead to a “compensation” for underlying genetic-driven interindividual differences in the baseline chromatin and transcriptional state. This work represents an example of how chemical and environmental exposures can be evaluated to better understand gene-by-environment interactions, and it demonstrates the important role of chromatin response in transcriptomic changes and, potentially, in deleterious effects of exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1937 Received: 21 March 2017 Revis...