Imaging the Coronary Artery Plaque: Approaches, Advances, and Challenges

AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, largely due to the disruption of high-risk plaques (HRP). Understanding how best to identify HRP, using imaging, has the potential to improve assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and facilitate better targeting of care to patients.Recent FindingsTechnological advances have been made across several imaging modalities, which provide opportunities to image HRP. Advances in computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) target multiple features of HRP.SummaryA growing number of studies have demonstrated their utility in assessing risk and guiding therapeutic interventions. While opportunities exist today to employ HRP imaging, further studies are needed to assess the value of imaging HRP to refine CVD risk and target therapeutics.
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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Abstract Imaging procedures have become an important diagnostic tool in vasculitis. In large vessel vasculitides, such as giant-cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) can depict specific abnormalities of the arterial wall. A clinically suspected diagnosis can be confirmed by imaging if performed by a trained specialist using appropriate equipment, without histological investigations. Ultrasound, MRI and CT show a homogeneous, concentric thickening of the ar...
Source: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Z Rheumatol Source Type: research
Duplex ultrasound examination, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance angiography have traditionally been used as noninvasive methods to assess carotid stenosis severity. The degree of stenosis in asymptomatic patients has often been used as the main criterion to assess risk for plaque embolization and stroke. There has been an effort to find alternate methods to assess vulnerable plaques. This has included many modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging and other ultrasound techniques.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Invited commentary Source Type: research
Conclusions: PET/CT images provide unique quantitative information that cannot be obtained from any other imaging modalities.
Source: Quintessence International - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Diagnostic and Interventional ImagingAuthor(s): S. Sun, P.A. Bonaffini, S. Nougaret, L. Fournier, A. Dohan, J. Chong, J. Smith, H. Addley, C. ReinholdAbstractUterine leiomyomas, the most frequent benign myomatous tumors of the uterus, often cannot be distinguished from malignant uterine leiomyosarcomas using clinical criteria. Furthermore, imaging differentiation between both entities is frequently challenging due to their potential overlapping features. Because a suspected leiomyoma is often managed conservatively or with minimally invasive treatments, the misdiagno...
Source: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFor uterine cervical cancer, the recently revised International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system (2018) incorporates imaging and pathology assessments in its staging. In this review we summarize the reported staging performances of conventional and novel imaging methods and provide an overview of promising novel imaging methods relevant for cervical cancer patient care.Recent FindingsDiagnostic imaging during the primary diagnostic work-up is recommended to better assess tumor extent and metastatic disease and is now reflected in the 2018 FIGO stages 3C1 and 3C2 (positi...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The requirements of imaging are determined by clinical presentation, laboratory findings, tumor stage, the presence of a tumor syndrome and the need of a personalized systemic treatment modality. PMID: 31359091 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Der Radiologe - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research
Jnl Wrist Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1693147 Background Scaphoid fracture accounts for approximately 15% of acute wrist fractures. Clinical examination and plain X-rays are commonly used to diagnose the fracture, but this approach may miss up to 16% of fractures in the absence of clear-cut lucent lines on plain radiographs. As such, additional imaging may be required. It is not clear which imaging modality is the best. The goal of this study is to summarize the current literature on scaphoid fractures to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of four different imaging modalities. Case description&emsp...
Source: Journal of Wrist Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Survey or Meta-Analysis Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeTo develop a multiparametric [18F]FDG positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) model for breast cancer diagnosis incorporating imaging biomarkers of breast tumors and contralateral healthy breast tissue.MethodsIn this prospective study and retrospective data analysis, 141 patients (mean 57  years) with an imaging abnormality detected on mammography and/or ultrasound (BI-RADS 4/5) underwent combined multiparametric [18F]FDG PET/MRI with PET/computed tomography and multiparametric MRI of the breast at 3  T. Images were evaluated and the following were recorded: for the tumor,...
Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Kanclerz P, Grzybowski A Abstract Silicone oil (SO) is used mainly when managing complex retinal detachments, commonly with proliferative vitreoretinopathy, as well as a hemostatic agent in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Combined lens exchange and pars plana vitrectomy remains preferred by many surgeons; however, sequential surgery might be advantageous to minimize the postoperative anterior chamber inflammatory response, particularly in proliferative diabetic retinopathy or retinal detachment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the optimal method of intraocular lens (IOL) calculation in eyes filled...
Source: Seminars in Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Semin Ophthalmol Source Type: research
The objectives of this study were to compare resource util ization in EDs that use APPs in their staffing model with those that do not and to estimate costs associated with the utilized resources.Methods: In this five-year retrospective secondary data analysis of the Emergency Department Benchmarking Alliance (EDBA), we compared resource utilization rates in EDs with and without APPs in non-academic EDs. Primary outcomes were hospital admission and use of computed tomography (CT), radiography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Costs were estimated using the 2014 physician fee schedule and inpatient payments from the...
Source: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research
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