Bioengineering: Kidney glomerulus-on-a-chip

Nature Reviews Nephrology 13, 382 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrneph.2017.79 Author: Susan J. Allison In vitro models that mimic the glomerulus could aid understanding of glomerular disease processes and potentially guide therapeutic discovery. Researchers now report a method for directing the efficient differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into podocytes that can be co-cultured with human
Source: Nature Reviews Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 15 September 2019Source: Advances in Biological RegulationAuthor(s): Samuel Gusscott, Francesco Tamiro, Vincenzo Giambra, Andrew P. WengAbstractT-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive cancer, characterized by an uncontrolled expansion and accumulation of T-cell progenitors. During leukemic progression, immature T cells grow abnormally and occupy the bone marrow compartment, thereby interfering with the production of normal blood cells. Pediatric T-ALL is curable with intensive chemotherapy, but there are significant, long-term side effects and ∼20% of patients suf...
Source: Advances in Biological Regulation - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the influence of structure of extracellular matrix-mimicking electrospun poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibrous scaffolds and incorporated growth factors (bone morphogenetic protein2 (BMP2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)) (GFs) on in vitro differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured onto the scaffolds. Furthermore, Cargo GFs were first encapsulated into coacervate (Coa). Coa-coated nano-sized PLLA (Coa-nPLLA) exhibited relatively higher coating efficacy, than Coa-coated micro-sized PLLA (Coa-mPLLA) due to large mesh hole area of mPLLA. Consequently, a faster GF re...
Source: Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Eelco J P de Koning, François Pattou, Michael R RickelsSummaryThe main goal of treatment for type 1 diabetes is to control glycaemia with insulin therapy to reduce disease complications. For some patients, technological approaches to insulin delivery are inadequate, and allogeneic islet transplantation is a safe alternative for those patients who have had severe hypoglycaemia complicated by impaired hypoglycaemia awareness or glycaemic lability, or who already receive immunosuppressive drugs for a kidney trans...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Genes &DiseasesAuthor(s): Wei Liu, Zhongliang Deng, Zongyue Zeng, Jiaming Fan, Yixiao Feng, Xi Wang, Daigui Cao, Bo Zhang, Lijuan Yang, Bin Liu, Mikhail Pakvasa, William Wagstaff, Xiaoxing Wu, Huaxiu Luo, Jing Zhang, Meng Zhang, Fang He, Yukun Mao, Huiming Ding, Yongtao ZhangAbstractBone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) (or GDF2) was originally identified from fetal mouse liver cDNA libraries. Emerging evidence indicates BMP9 exerts diverse and pleotropic functions during postnatal development and in maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, the expression landsc...
Source: Genes and Diseases - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Chen AS, Read RD Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor. Genomic amplifications, activating mutations, and overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as EGFR, and genes in core RTK signaling transduction pathways such as PI3K are common in GBM. However, efforts to target these pathways have been largely unsuccessful in the clinic, and the median survival of GBM patients remains poor at 14-15 months. Therefore, to improve patient outcomes, there must be a concerted effort to elucidate the underlying biology involved in GBM tumorigenesi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Singh SR, Aggarwal P, Hou SX Abstract Accumulative studies suggest that a fraction of cells within a tumor, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) that initiate tumors, show resistance to most of the therapies, and causes tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs could be either transformed normal stem cells or reprogrammed differentiated cells. The eventual goal of CSC research is to identify pathways that selectively regulate CSCs and then target these pathways to eradicate CSCs. CSCs and normal stem cells share some common features, such as self-renewal, the production of differentiated progeny, and the expressi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
We present the self-assembling manifold (SAM) algorithm, an iterative soft feature selection strategy to quantify gene relevance and improve dimensionality reduction. We demonstrate its advantages over other state-of-the-art methods with experimental validation in identifying novel stem cell populations ofSchistosoma mansoni, a prevalent parasite that infects hundreds of millions of people. Extending our analysis to a total of 56 datasets, we show that SAM is generalizable and consistently outperforms other methods in a variety of biological and quantitative benchmarks.
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Computational and Systems Biology Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Source Type: research
Bone Marrow Transplantation, Published online: 16 September 2019; doi:10.1038/s41409-019-0656-4Investigation of TGFB1 −1347C>T variant as a biomarker after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Source: Bone Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
Bone Marrow Transplantation, Published online: 16 September 2019; doi:10.1038/s41409-019-0671-5Newly diagnosed myeloma patients with low-burden disease may benefit from tandem autologous stem cell transplantation: results of long-term follow-up
Source: Bone Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
Bone Marrow Transplantation, Published online: 16 September 2019; doi:10.1038/s41409-019-0681-3Combined immune score of lymphocyte to monocyte ratio and immunoglobulin levels predicts treatment-free survival of multiple myeloma patients after autologous stem cell transplant
Source: Bone Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
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