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More brain activity is not always better when it comes to memory and attention

(University of Nottingham) Potential new ways of understanding the cause of cognitive impairments, such as problems with memory and attention, in brain disorders including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's are under the spotlight in a new research review.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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Authors: Varol E, Sotiras A, Davatzikos C Abstract There is ample evidence for the heterogeneous nature of diseases. For example, Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorder are typical disease examples that are characterized by high clinical heterogeneity, and likely by heterogeneity in the underlying brain phenotypes. Parsing this heterogeneity as captured by neuroimaging studies is important both for better understanding of disease mechanisms, and for building subtype-specific classifiers. However, few existing methodologies tackle this problem in a principled machine learning framework. In t...
Source: MICCAI International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - Category: Radiology Tags: Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv Source Type: research
AbstractTyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting step in catecholamine synthesis in which its activity influences Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and IQ of schizophrenia patients, has been studied for a long time. In the meantime, the present investigation assessed the effect of noggin and type of self-assembling nanofibers in TH gene over-expression by neuron-like cells derived from human endometrial-derived stromal cells (hEnSCs). Neuroblastoma cells and hEnSCs encapsulated into nanofibers including Matrigel, (RADA)4, laminin, and BMHP-1 motif bounded to (RADA)4 and their cell viability were studied for 48  ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2017 Source:NeuroImage, Volume 158 Author(s): Mehdi Rahim, Bertrand Thirion, Danilo Bzdok, Irène Buvat, Gaël Varoquaux To probe individual variations in brain organization, population imaging relates features of brain images to rich descriptions of the subjects such as genetic information or behavioral and clinical assessments. Capturing common trends across these measurements is important: they jointly characterize the disease status of patient groups. In particular, mapping imaging features to behavioral scores with predictive models opens the way toward more precise diagnosis. He...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Striatal-enriched tyrosine protein phosphatase (STEP) is expressed mainly in the brain. Its dysregulation is associated with Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, schizophrenia, fragile X syndrome, drug abuse and stroke/ischemia. However, an association between STEP and depressive disorders is still obscure. The review discusses the theoretical foundations and experimental facts concerning possible relationship between STEP dysregulation and depression risk. STEP dephosphorylates and inactivates several key neuronal signaling proteins such as extracellular signal-regulating kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), stres...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: S-adenosylmethionine holds promise as a treatment for multiple neuropsychiatric conditions, but the body of evidence has limitations. The encouraging findings support further study of SAMe in both psychiatric and comorbid medical illnesses. PMID: 28682528 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Experimental Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, a7 PAMs, in addition to alleviate the cognitive impairments observed in SCH patients, may enhance the antipsychotic efficacy of atypical antipsychotics. PMID: 28684359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Authors: Pellerin D, Lortie A, Corbin F Abstract Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and the leading monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite a large number of therapeutics developed in past years, there is currently no targeted treatment approved for FXS. In fact, translation of the positive and very promising preclinical findings from animal models to human subjects has so far fallen short owing in part to the low predictive validity of the Fmr1 ko mouse, an overly simplistic model of the complex human disease. This issue stresses the critical n...
Source: Platelets - Category: Hematology Tags: Platelets Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: OCT findings are useful to predict the probability of a disease, to diagnose it early, to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy tissue, and to assess the effect of therapeutic interventions in many systemic diseases. PMID: 28640657 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Seminars in Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Semin Ophthalmol Source Type: research
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