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More brain activity is not always better when it comes to memory and attention

(University of Nottingham) Potential new ways of understanding the cause of cognitive impairments, such as problems with memory and attention, in brain disorders including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's are under the spotlight in a new research review.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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Humanin (HN) is a 24-residue peptide that manipulates cell survival under various stresses. A highly potent HN derivative, HNG, reduced amyloid burden and neuroinflammation and suppressed cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice. Cuprizone (CPZ), a copper chelator, provokes demyelination in the central nervous system of mice. A shorter (one week) exposure to CPZ induces schizophrenia-like behavior and glial activation prior to demyelination. We tested the effect of HNG on these short-term responses to CZP in mice.
Source: Neuropeptides - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
In this study we introduce the novel idea that recurring persistent network activity (Up states) in the neocortex at the reduced level of the brain slice may be used as an endophenotype of brain disorders that will help us understand not only how local microcircuits of the cortex may be affected in brain diseases, but also when, since an important issue for the design of successful treatment strategies concerns the time window available for intervention. PMID: 28971403 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Abstract  Reelin is a large secreted glycoprotein that regulates embryonic neuronal lamination and adult synaptic function. Secreted Reelin binds to lipoprotein receptors expressed on neurons. The Reelin-receptor interaction induces phosphorylation of an intracellular adaptor protein Dab1, which is required for normal embryonic brain development and adult brain functions. It has been suggested that Reelin hypofunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism, and Alzheimer's disease. Thus upregulation of Reelin activity may ameliorate the symptoms of...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research
This study indicates that systemic dual-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections increases KYNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is accompanied with increased phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa chain of activated B cells (NF κB) and activation of the nuclear factor of activated T- cells (NFAT).
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
rka L Abstract Nearly 60 years has elapsed since the first isolation and identification of 7alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone, and in that time much information has been gained on its occurrence, metabolism, ontogeny, immunomodulatory activity, cell proliferation, cortisol control in local tissues and neuroactivity. Additional knowledge about this steroid may elucidate its role in obesity, neurodegenerative disturbances such as Alzheimer's disease, or psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the available literature on 7alpha-hydroxy-dehyd...
Source: Physiological Research - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research
Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 144 Author(s): Julie C. Stout, Sophie C. Andrews, Yifat Glikmann-Johnston Several Huntington disease (HD) clinical trials are in progress and on the horizon. Potential treatments are increasingly being targeted at ameliorating the cognitive decline in HD. This necessitates a careful consideration of trial designs, including endpoint strategies suitable for testing cognitive function. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate and consider the use of cognitive measures in HD clinical trials. We first consider the role of cognition in clinical trial endpoint m...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract In elderly patients, bullous pemphigoid (BP) is associated with several comorbidities; the strongest association occurs between BP and neurological diseases. Different types of dementia, Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular disorders and epilepsy all have a significant association with BP, but patients with multiple sclerosis have the highest risk of BP. An existing neurological disorder appears to increase the risk for subsequent BP, but an increased risk for developing some neurological diseases has also been reported following BP diagnosis. BP seems to be associated with several psychiatric diseases such as sch...
Source: Experimental Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
Activity‐dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), discovered in our laboratory in 1999, has been characterized as a master gene vital for mammalian brain formation. ADNP de novo mutations in humans result in a syndromic form of autism‐like spectrum disorder (ASD), including cognitive and motor deficits, the ADNP syndrome (Helsmoortel‐Van Der Aa). One of the most important cellular processes associated with ADNP is the autophagy pathway, recently discovered by us as a key player in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this regard, given the link between the microtubule and autophagy systems, the ADNP microtubule ...
Source: BioEssays - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Prospects and Overviews Source Type: research
Abstract Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are broadly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and other tissues in the periphery. They emerge as important drug targets for a number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Muscarinic receptors are divided into five subtypes (M1-M5) of which M1-M4 have been crystalized. All subtypes possess at least one allosteric binding site which is located in the extracellular region of the receptor on top of the ACh (i.e. orthosteric) binding site. The former can be specifically targ...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract The intrinsic electrical characteristics of different types of neurons are shaped by the K(+) channels they express. From among the more than 70 different K(+) channel genes expressed in neurons, Kv3 family voltage-dependent K(+) channels are uniquely associated with the ability of certain neurons to fire action potentials and to release neurotransmitter at high rates of up to 1,000 Hz. In general, the four Kv3 channels Kv3.1-Kv3.4 share the property of activating and deactivating rapidly at potentials more positive than other channels. Each Kv3 channel gene can generate multiple protein isoforms, which c...
Source: Physiological Reviews - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Physiol Rev Source Type: research
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