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More brain activity is not always better when it comes to memory and attention

(University of Nottingham) Potential new ways of understanding the cause of cognitive impairments, such as problems with memory and attention, in brain disorders including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's are under the spotlight in a new research review.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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(University of California - San Diego) Researchers have developed new single-cell sequencing methods that could be used to map the cell origins of various brain disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. By analyzing individual nuclei of cells from adult human brains, researchers have identified 35 different subtypes of neurons and glial cells and discovered which of these subtypes are most susceptible to common risk factors for different brain diseases.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: High anticholinergic burden contributes to specific cognitive deficits in older individuals with schizophrenia that resemble those commonly observed early in the course of Alzheimer's dementia. The ACB is a potentially useful screening tool that can help identify patients at risk of developing anticholinergic-related cognitive impairment. PMID: 29188908 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
It was previously thought that neurons were phagocytosed only when dead or dying. However, it is increasingly clear that viable synapses, dendrites, axons and whole neurons can be phagocytosed alive (defined here as neurophagy), and this may contribute to a wide range of developmental, physiological and pathological processes. Phagocytosis of live synapses, dendrites and axons by glia contributes to experience‐dependent sculpting of neuronal networks during development, but excessive phagocytosis of synapses may contribute to pathology in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and ageing. Neurons can expose phosphatidylserin...
Source: FEBS Journal - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
ConclusionPatients with tube feeding survived longer than those without tube feeding, even among dementia patients. This study suggests that enteral nutrition for patients with dementia prolongs survival. Additionally, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding may be safer than nasogastric tube feeding among patients in psychiatric hospitals.
Source: Psychogeriatrics - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
What role might the immune system play in mental illness? And how might this challenge long-held beliefs about the divide between body and brain?Subscribe&Review oniTunes,Soundcloud,Audioboom,Mixcloud&Acast, and join the discussion onFacebook andTwitterEarlier this month, a clinical trial began to test aradical new approach for treating schizophrenia. The trial comes from a team of scientists based in London who have discovered intriguing evidence that schizophrenia could be a disease of the immune system. But how could disruptions in the immune system lead to the kind of symptoms seen in schizophrenia? And might the i...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Science Schizophrenia Mental health Psychiatry Medicine Alzheimer's Society Source Type: news
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29159928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2017 Source:Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B, Volume 7, Issue 6 Author(s): Taoyi Yang, Ting Xiao, Qi Sun, Kewei Wang The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), consisting of homomeric α7 subunits, is a ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable ion channel implicated in cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders. Enhancement of α7 nAChR function is considered to be a potential therapeutic strategy aiming at ameliorating cognitive deficits of neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. Currently, a number of α7 nAChR modulators have been reported...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of a psychiatric comorbidity can significantly affect adherence to buprenorphine. These trends illustrate the need for clinicians treating opioid use disorder with buprenorphine to screen for psychiatric disorders and monitor their medication adherence. There may also be opportunities to design interventions to help this vulnerable population adhere to buprenorphine and other forms of opioid pharmacotherapy. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1-5). PMID: 29143483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal on Addictions - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Am J Addict Source Type: research
Abstract Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the metabotropic actions of acetylcholine (ACh). There are five subtypes of mAChR, M1 - M5, which are expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) on numerous cell types and represent promising treatment targets for a number of different diseases, disorders, and conditions of the CNS. Although the present review will focus on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a number of conditions such as Parkinson's disease (PD), schizophrenia, and others represent significant un...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
The essential role played by the hippocampus within the human brain makes it a particularly important target for neuroimaging studies. The hippocampus is well known for its functional involvement in the mechanisms of memory and has also been associated with various diseases or conditions through its very structure, either directly in memory-related disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease (Bobinski et al., 1999; Jack et al., 1999; Laakso et al., 1996; Reiman et al., 1998; Schuff et al., 2009; Šimić et al., 1997) and PTSD (Bonne et al., 2001; Gilbertson et al., 2002; Gurvits et al., 1996; Pederson et al., 2004; Shin et...
Source: Medical Image Analysis - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
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