Annual Epidemiological Report for 2015: Zoonotic Influenza

This report provides 2015 data on cases of zoonotic influenza reported worldwide and by European Union/European Economic Area countries. It discusses cases of avian and swine influenza by each type of zoonotic influenza. It provides information on methods, discussion facts, and public health conclusions. (Text)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: news

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of i...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Baik Seong Glycosylation of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of the influenza provides crucial means for immune evasion and viral fitness in a host population. However, the time-dependent dynamics of each glycosylation sites have not been addressed. We monitored the potential N-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites of over 10,000 HA and NA of H1N1 subtype isolated from human, avian, and swine species over the past century. The results show a shift in glycosylation sites as a hallmark of 1918 and 2009 pandemics, and also for the 1976 “abortive pandemic”. Co-segregation of particular glycosylation si...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract The development of influenza candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) for pre-pandemic vaccine production represents a critical step in pandemic preparedness. The multiple subtypes and clades of avian or swine origin influenza viruses circulating world-wide at any one time necessitates the continuous generation of CVVs to provide an advanced starting point should a novel zoonotic virus cross the species barrier and cause a pandemic. Furthermore, the evolution and diversity of novel influenza viruses that cause zoonotic infections requires ongoing monitoring and surveillance, and, when a lack of antigenic match be...
Source: Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
AbstractAwareness of animal influenza and its prevention and control is important for ensuring livestock health, production and welfare. In China, a country stereotyped as a major source of emerging zoonotic infectious diseases, research on the public understanding of animal influenza is limited to the Han, the main ethnic group. The present qualitative study in Southwest China investigated awareness of animal influenza among the Dai, an ethnic minority. The participants (15 men and 10 women, ages 18 –83) were smallholder farmers of pigs and poultry in rural areas of Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province. A mixtur...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Summary In 2009, a pandemic influenza A virus (pH1N1) spread globally in humans and infected a broad range of captive animals with close human contact. In February 2014, a pH1N1 virus was isolated from a sloth bear with respiratory signs at a US zoo, demonstrating that recurring epidemics present an ongoing threat to animals, including threatened species. This is the first report of pH1N1 infection in sloth bears. To understand the sloth bear virus within the global context of pH1N1, phylogenetic trees were inferred including full‐length sequences from available non‐human, non‐swine hosts, representing four families ...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: SHORT COMMUNICATION Source Type: research
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major public health concern, being responsible for the death of approximately half a million people each year. Zoonotic transmissions of the virus from swine and avian origin hav...
Source: BMC Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractIn recent years multiple novel influenza A strains have emerged in humans. We reviewed publically available data to summarise epidemiological characteristics of distinct avian influenza viruses known to cause human infection and describe changes over time. Most recently identified zoonotic strains have emerged in China (H7N9, H5N6, H10N8) – these strains have occurred mostly in association with visiting a live bird market. Most zoonotic AIVs and swine influenza variants typically cause mild infections in humans however severe illness and fatalities are associated with zoonotic H5N6, H10N8, H7N9 and H5N1 serot...
Source: Archives of Public Health - Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research
Infection route is key to testing the effectiveness of swine flu vaccines J. D. Hemmink, S. B. Morgan, M. Aramouni, H. Everett, F. J. Salguero, L. Canini and others INFLUENZA A virus (IAV) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause substantial mortality and be rapidly disseminated through avian (ducks and chickens) and mammalian (human and pig) populations. Experimentally, influenza virus is delivered to pigs intranasally, by intratracheal instillation or by aerosol, but there is little data comparing the outcome of different methods. In order to determine the most relevant model for assessment of IAV pathogenesis, t...
Source: Veterinary Record - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Research Digest Source Type: research
The objectives of this study were to assess whether free‐ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV. Sera from 689 American mink from Northern Spain captured between 2011 and 2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against IAVs using a commercial competition cELISA. Positive sera were further analysed with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Fifteen of the 689 (2.2%, 1.3–3.6 CI95%) of the American minks analysed were ELISA positive. No significant differences were observed between years of capture, p...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, highly pathogenic subtypes of influenza virus seem rare in backyard poultry, but virus reassortment, involving potentially zoonotic and pandemic subtypes, appears to occur frequently in smallholder pigs and poultry. Increased targeted surveillance and monitoring of influenza circulation on smallholdings would further improve understanding of the transmission dynamics and evolution of influenza viruses in humans, pigs and poultry in the Mekong subregion and could contribute to limit the influenza burden.
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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