Using Viruses to Boost Mesothelioma Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy through clinical trials is becoming a promising treatment option for some mesothelioma patients. Checkpoint inhibitor drugs, such as Keytruda, already have U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval as first-line treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), edging immunotherapy drugs closer to becoming a viable second-line therapy for other thoracic cancers, including pleural mesothelioma. However, overall response to immune therapies remains relatively low. Researchers across the country are striving to enhance responsiveness to immunotherapy drugs. Leading that trend is viroimmunotherapy, or the process of combining cancer-killing (oncolytic) viruses with immunotherapy drugs. Dr. Manish Patel, an assistant professor in the division of hematology, oncology and transplantation at the University of Minnesota, has studied the potential of virus therapy for mesothelioma for several years. His research led to an ongoing clinical trial at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, investigating the side effects and optimal dosage levels of using a genetically altered measles virus to kill mesothelioma tumor cells. Patel and Dr. Alexander Dash of Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota, recently published a paper in the journal Biomedicines that analyzes measles and other oncolytic viruses as potential viroimmunotherapy treatments for pleural mesothelioma and other thoracic cancers. As research continues, Patel believes the day of using viruses to in...
China's childhood hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programme is a great public health success, resulting in a prevalence of HBsAg of only 1% in children under 5 years. However, the burden of HBV infection in China is still the highest in the world, with one third of the world's 240 million people with chronic HBV living in China.1 Nevertheless, most people with HBV infection in China are unaware that they carry the disease, making HBV infection a truly silent epidemic.2
The 2017 –18 influenza season in the northern hemisphere was notably intense, similar to the immediately preceding season in the southern hemisphere. A likely factor influencing the intensity of these seasons was the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine both in terms of the matching of the components of the vaccine to the dominant circulating strains and the ability of these individual components to elicit protection. A universal influenza vaccine, which would offer broad and long-lasting protection, would overcome the shortcomings of the current cat-and-mouse approach.
On March 7, 2018, four cases in human beings of encephalitis associated with Borna disease virus 1 infection were reported in Germany, including three deaths. Of the four patients, three had received organs from the same donor who had no clinical signs of the illness, two of these recipients died from their illness. An additional case of encephalitis caused by Borna disease virus 1 was identified in southern Germany, this patient also died from their illness. No epidemiological link was identified between this case and the organ transplant recipients.
Conclusions: We found no evidence of increased risk of subsequent asthma diagnosis among children younger than 3 years of age who received LAIV compared with placebo.
Conclusions: Maternal influenza immunization may reduce severe pneumonia episodes among infants—particularly those too young to be completely vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza.
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Conclusion: While there was no difference in acquisition of VT nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus in CLH and HUC after one dose of PCV13, earlier access to ART may impact response to PCV13 in CLH.
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This study aimed to describe the pertussis epidemiology in the Puglia region in 2006–2015 and to identify recent polymorphisms in Bordetella pertussis virulence-associated genes. Methods: The pertussis cases in 2006–2015 were identified from the National Hospital Discharge Database and the Information System of Infectious Diseases. Samples of pertussis cases in 2014–2016 that were confirmed by the Regional Reference Laboratory were subjected to ptxA, ptxP and prn gene sequencing and, in 10 cases, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. Results: In Puglia in 2006–2015, the pertus...
Conclusions: Only a small number of adolescents from Greece traveling abroad seek pretravel counseling. We found significant gaps in typhoid fever and rabies vaccinations of adolescents traveling to endemic areas. We also found gaps in prescription of malaria chemoprophylaxis for those traveling to high-risk areas. There is a need to develop communication strategies to access adolescent travelers and improve appropriate vaccination and use of malaria chemoprophylaxis.
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