Plasma DNA methylation: a potential biomarker for stratification of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Conclusions Differential DNA methylation at the PPAR promoter can be detected within the pool of cell-free DNA of human plasma. With further validation, plasma DNA methylation of PPAR could potentially be used to non-invasively stratify liver fibrosis severity in patients with NAFLD. Plasma DNA methylation signatures reflect the molecular pathology associated with fibrotic liver disease.
Source: Gut - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Open access Hepatology Source Type: research

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is on the verge of becoming the leading cause of liver disease. NAFLD develops at the interface between environmental factors and inherited predisposition. Genome-wide association studies, followed by exome-wide analyses, led to identification of genetic risk variants (e.g. PNPLA3, TM6SF2, SERPINA1) and key pathways involved in fatty liver disease pathobiology. Functional studies improved our understanding of these genetic factors and the molecular mechanisms underlying the trajectories from fat accumulation to fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer over time.
Source: Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate whether the liver and spleen volumetric indices, measured on portal venous phase CT images, could be used to assess liver fibrosis severity in chronic liver disease.MethodsFrom 2007 to 2017, 558 patients (mean age 48.7  ± 13.1 years; 284 men and 274 women) with chronic liver disease (n = 513) or healthy liver (n = 45) were retrospectively enrolled. The liver volume (sVolL) and spleen volume (sVolS), normalized to body surface area and liver-to-spleen volume ratio (VolL/VolS), were measured on CT images using a deep learning algorithm. The c...
Source: European Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease affecting approximately 25% of the global population. Although a majority of NAFLD patients will never experience liver-related symptoms it is estimated that 5 –10% will develop cirrhosis-related complications with risk of death or need for liver transplantation. NAFLD is closely associated with cardiovascular disease and components of the metabolic syndrome. However, NAFLD is not uncommon in lean individuals and may in these subjects represent a differe nt entity with separate pathophysiological mechanisms involved implying a ...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease world-wide, affecting 20-25% of the adult population. In 25% of patients, NAFLD progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which increases the risk for the development of cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. In patients with NASH, liver fibrosis is the main determinant of mortality. Here, we review how interactions between different liver cells culminate in fibrosis development in NASH, focusing on triggers and consequences of hepatocyte-macrophage-hepatic stellate cell (HSC) crosstalk.
Source: Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Serradilla Martín M, Oliver Guillén JR, Palomares Cano A, Ramia Ángel JM Abstract The term "metabolic syndrome" refers to a group of alterations comprising central obesity reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, elevated triglyceride concentrations, arterial hypertension, and hyperglycemia. This syndrome has established itself as one of the epidemics of the 21st century. Among its causative agents are insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin, changes in microbiota, and epigenetics. Its incidence in the European population is estimated to be around 25%. ...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely linked to the metabolic syndrome and is highly prevalent in bariatric patients. The gold standard to diagnose NAFLD is a liver biopsy specifically to detect inflammatory changes characteristic of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); technological advancements will improve the accuracy of current non-invasive modalities. Modification of risk factors via food management is important to prevent the progression of NAFLD to NASH and cirrhosis. Several clinical trials are underway for pharmacological treatment of NAFLD; currently the mainstay of treatment is insulin sensitizers and vitamin E.
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Review articles Source Type: research
ConclusionsUnder a combination of leflunomide and methotrexate, liver toxicity and, for the first time, thrombotic microangiopathy occurred as side effects. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may have predisposed for the drug-induced liver toxicity.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionA substantial further reduction in cases of HCC requires a wider application of universal HBV vaccination and effective treatment of HBV- and HCV-related chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, more effective campaigns to favor correct dietary habits and reduce alcohol consumption and the intensification of studies on HCC pathogenesis for future optimized prevention strategies.
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
NAFLD is defined as hepatic steatosis, either by imaging or histology, in the absence of secondary factors such as alcohol abuse, medications or other causes for fatty liver disease. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the association of steatosis with hepatocyte injury (hepatocyte ballooning) or with inflammation (hepatitis). In contrast to “simple” steatosis or nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), NASH is often progressive and carries a significant risk of cirrhosis over time. This division is potentially dynamic, because NAFL can progress to NASH if metabolic (or other unknown) factors deteriorate and NASH ca...
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly recognized public health problem, affecting up to a quarter of the world's adult population. The burden of NAFLD is influenced by the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the prevalence of these conditions is not expected to decrease in the forthcoming decades. Consequently, the burden of NAFLD-related liver complications (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH], cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) and the need for life-saving liver transplantation are also expected to increase further in the near future.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research
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