Assessment of the Probability of Autochthonous Transmission of Chikungunya Virus in Canada under Recent and Projected Climate Change

In this study we explore the potential for autochthonous, but not necessarily sustained, transmission of CHIKV in Canada. We used a stochastic mathematical model parameterized for Ae. albopictus under climatic conditions in the warmest months of the year in locations across Canada. We then combined the climatic suitability for CHIKV transmission potential in the warmest months of the year (condition C4) with climatic suitability indicators for the endemic presence of Ae. albopictus (condition C3) to produce risk maps identifying areas in Canada most suitable for autochthonous CHIKV transmission under recent and projected climate. Methods Climatic Suitability for Chikungunya Virus Transmission Potential Transmission potential for CHIKV was explored by modeling the basic reproductive number (R0) of the virus. We calculated R0 using a model previously developed for yellow fever and CHIKV that accounts for the temperature-dependent EIP of CHIKV in the vector population and subsequent vector survival beyond the EIP (Johansson et al. 2012; Johansson et al. 2014). In this model, R0 is the combination of two components, the average number of infectious mosquitoes produced per infectious human, R0HM, and the average number of infectious humans produced per infectious mosquito, R0MH: R0HM is the product of the numbers of mosquitoes per person (φ), the contact rate between humans and mosquitoes (daily biting rate) (α), the probability a mosquito acquires CHIKV from an ...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research

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Authors: Siqueira-Batista R, De Souza Bayão T, Do Carmo Cupertino M, Alfred Joseph Mayers N, Patrícia Gomes A Abstract Yellow fever is an acute febrile illness for which there is no specific antiviral treatment. Since 2016, Brazil has experienced two outbreaks, and collective health measures have been adopted to contain these grievances. However, published data about the drug sofosbuvir against flaviviruses are promising, suggesting the relevance of conducting future clinical trials. PMID: 31613184 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research
Authors: Achmat G, Leach L, Onagbiye SO Abstract BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk factors have reached epidemic proportions, with many people at risk of premature disability and death. There is insufficient data regarding the prevalence of CMD risk factors among firefighters in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of CMD risk factors among South African firefighters in the Western Cape Province. Additional outcomes were to determine the relationship between BMI and CMD risk factors among firefighters. METHODS: A total of 219 healthy mal...
Source: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: J Sports Med Phys Fitness Source Type: research
Authors: Lapointe-Shaw L, Bell CM PMID: 31613792 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Canadian Medical Association Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: CMAJ Source Type: research
Experts in immunology, vaccine biology, biomedical engineering, optics and physics will use cutting-edge imaging technologies to watch the immune system work in real time and explore ways to better fight infections like the flu.
Source: University of Rochester Medical Center Press Releases - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: news
ConclusionsIn conclusion, PLDRH is a feasible and safe procedure with a learning curve of 65 –70 cases.
Source: Surgical Endoscopy - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Authors: Yang S, Wang D, Xu J, Luo F, Wu W, Zhang Z Abstract Objective: To observe the clinical effect of anterior debridement, decompression, bone grafting, and instrumentation for cervical spinal tuberculosis in four hospitals. Materials and Methods: This research retrospectively analyzed 146 patients with cervical spinal tuberculosis who were treated by anterior debridement, decompression, bone grafting, and instrumentation in four institutions between January 2000 and January 2015. There were 68 males and 78 females with an average age of 31.32 ± 11.69 years. All patients received chemotherapy for 18 mon...
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Authors: Pu F, Feng J, Yang L, Zhang L, Xia P Abstract Compared to other diseases, early or atypical spinal tuberculosis (TB) is prone to being misdiagnosed due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations and misleading negative results of various laboratory analyses and imaging examinations. Various methods for diagnosing spinal TB have become research hotspots. Recently, it has been proposed that effective vaccination is a mainstay of long-term policies to combat and control the TB epidemic. However, some new TB vaccines require further evaluation and clinical trials to demonstrate their efficiency and safety...
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Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
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