Radiation therapy, macrophages improve efficacy of nanoparticle-delivered cancer therapy

(Massachusetts General Hospital) Massachusetts General Hospital investigators report finding finding how appropriately timed radiation therapy can significantly improve the delivery of cancer nanomedicines by attracting macrophages to tumor blood vessels, which results in a transient 'burst' of nanoencapsulated drugs from capillaries into the tumor.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Conclusions: The addition of vascular-targeted AuNPs significantly improved the treatment effect of liposomal doxorubicin after RT, consistent with the increased liposome accumulation observed in tumors in the imaging study. Using this approach with a liposomal drug delivery system can increase specific tumor delivery of chemotherapeutics, which has the potential to significantly improve tumor response and reduce the side effects of both RT and chemotherapy.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Elekta (STO:EKTA B) said today it won CE Mark approval in the European Union for its Elekta Unity magnetic resonance radiation therapy system. The Stockholm-based company touted that its Unity system allows clinicians to deliver radiation doses while simultaneously visualizing the tumor and surrounding tissue through MR imaging. The system also features integrated advanced tools that allow the operator to adapt treatment based on anatomical information. “Unity is a tremendous innovation in patient care, one that enables a scan-plan-treat approach to developing tailored regimens that should yield substantive clinical ...
Source: Mass Device - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Imaging Oncology Regulatory/Compliance Elekta Source Type: news
We describe development of a new nanoconstruct composed of gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated to carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) antibody that specifically binds to CAIX, a biomarker of hypoxia, to facilitate targeting tumor hypoxic areas for focused photothermal ablation. Physicochemical characterization studies confirmed the size, shape, monodispersity, surface charge, and serum stability of the GNRs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and cellular binding and uptake studies confirmed successful conjugation of antibody to the GNRs and specificity for CAIX. Near-infrared irradiation of CAIX-overexpressing cells treated with GNR...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Conclusion We found a steady decrease in the percent of patients receiving radiotherapy in their first course of treatment, and a global decline in the mean number of fractions delivered per patient receiving EBRT, compared with an increase in systemic therapy and stable surgery utilization. These results illustrate the changing use of radiotherapy and fractionation during first-line therapy in contemporary US cancer care.
Source: Journal of the American College of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
AbstractCancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified as the main center of tumor therapeutic resistance. They are highly resistant against current cancer therapy approaches particularly radiation therapy (RT). Recently, a wide spectrum of physical methods has been proposed to treat CSCs, including high energetic particles, hyperthermia (HT), nanoparticles (NPs) and combination of these approaches. In this review article, the importance and benefits of the physical CSCs therapy methods such as nanomaterial-based heat treatments and particle therapy will be highlighted.
Source: Clinical and Translational Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract The ability of cancers to evade conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, has been attributed to a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are regulated by mechanisms similar to those that regulate normal stem cells (NSCs), including processes involving ubiquitination and deubiquitination enzymes (DUBs) that regulate the expression of various factors, such as Notch, Wnt, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), and Hippo. In this review, we discuss the roles of various DUBs involved in the regulation of core stem cell transcription factors and CSC-related proteins that are implicated in th...
Source: Drug Discovery Today - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Drug Discov Today Source Type: research
Throughout various eras of breast cancer therapy, postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) has played an important role in the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer. PMRT decreases locoregional recurrence and may improve overall survival in patients with tumors over 5  cm or positive lymph nodes. As novel cancer therapies improve survival in breast cancer, the role of radiation therapy is evolving. Individualized recommendations for PMRT dependent on pathologic response after neoadjuvant systemic therapy are under investigation. This review summarizes the role o f PMRT during breast cancer therapy and discusses o...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions PTX is described to possess several properties which may be exploited in cancer treatment. The drug reportedly to not only have anticancer activity itself, but also increase cancer cells susceptibility to radiation therapy and, additionally, reduce long-term side effects of this therapy. What is more, numerous research groups report that PTX may increase anticancer potential of commonly used anticancer drugs such as cisplatin or doxorubicin as well as reduce side effects of these drugs. Significance PTX should be considered as potential drug in the combined anticancer therapy. PMID: 29804530 [PubMed - as s...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research
Conclusions: The initial results showed the integrated system’s potential for imaging and monitoring X-PDT XL and XF emissions during NP irradiation. The initial results also show that NPs’ the dose-effectiveness of XL and XF emission depend on incident X-ray energy. Future work will examine these correlations for the LiGa5O8:Cr and KI NPs using the imaging platform.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: New System Designs and Emerging Technologies Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe experimental results demonstrate that GNP-mediated chemoradiation has the potential to improve cancer care in the near future through enhancement of the local radiation dose and controlled delivery of anticancer drugs.
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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