Physiology and Pharmacology of Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channels.

Physiology and Pharmacology of Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channels. Adv Pharmacol. 2017;79:287-324 Authors: Dulhunty AF, Board PG, Beard NA, Casarotto MG Abstract Ryanodine receptor (RyR) ion channels are essential for skeletal and cardiac muscle function. Their knockout leads to perinatal death from respiratory and cardiac failure. Acquired changes or mutations in the protein cause debilitating skeletal myopathy and cardiac arrhythmia which can be deadly. Knowledge of the pharmacology of RyR channels is central to developing effective and specific treatments of these myopathies. The ion channel is a>2.2MDa homotetamer with distinct structural and functional characteristics giving rise to a myriad of regulatory sites that are potential therapeutic targets. Australian researchers have been intimately involved in the exploration of the proteins since their identification in the mid-1980s. We discuss major aspects of RyR physiology and pharmacology that have been tackled in Australian laboratories. Specific areas of interest include ultrastructural aspects and mechanisms of RyR activation in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and related pharmacological developments, regulation of RyRs by divalent cations, by associated proteins including the FK506-binding proteins, by redox factors and phosphorylation. We consider adverse effects of anthracycline chemotherapeutic drugs on cardiac RyRs. Phenotypes associated with RyR mutations are discussed wit...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

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Shelly B Borden, Molly K Groose, Mark J Robitaille, Kristopher M SchroederSaudi Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 13(3):249-252 Medication shortages are a clinical reality that force changes in practice patterns leading to unintended consequences. Potential solutions to any drug shortage require a thoughtful, multidisciplinary and often creative approach. Here, we report a case of unintentional epinephrine overdose leading to an unstable cardiac arrhythmia and our subsequent development of a visual cue system to prevent future errors. A 56-year-old man with a history of rectal adenocarcinoma presented for low anterior resection...
Source: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Source Type: research
Condition:   Cardiac Arrhythmia Intervention:   Device: Alivecor recording Sponsor:   Blackpool Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Mutations in several genes encoding ion channels can cause the long-QT (LQT) syndrome with cardiac arrhythmias, syncope and sudden death. Recently, mutations in some of these genes were also identified to cause epileptic seizures in these patients, and the sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) was considered to be the pathologic overlap between the two clinical conditions. For LQT-associated KCNQ1 mutations, only few investigations reported the coincidence of cardiac dysfunction and epileptic seizures. Clinical, electrophysiological and genetic characterization of a large pedigree (n=241 family members) with LQT s...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a significant cause of morbidity. It is most prevalent in individuals 65+ years and those with comorbidity. One third of individuals with AF are asymptomatic and unaware of their elevated risk of complications. Therefore, a targeted, community-based screening program is likely to be clinically- and cost-effective.
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: 534 Source Type: research
Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common inherited disease which causes premature acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Fatal ventricular arrhythmias are the leading cause of mortality in ACS patients worldwide. However, there is limited data on the association of FH and cardiac arrhythmias.
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: 226 Source Type: research
Purpose: The role of audio-visual educational materials in facilitating shared decision-making (between doctors and patients) is relatively untested during waiting time prior to cardiology outpatient consultation. This could be of significant importance in atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which requires a number of complex management decisions. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study investigating the effectiveness of a cardiologist-narrated educational module in facilitating shared decision-making for AF.
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: 214 Source Type: research
Background: Cardiac arrhythmia is common in intensively trained human athletes. Rodent studies have demonstrated increased arrhythmia inducibility following a period of athletic conditioning. The Thoroughbred racehorse demonstrates cardiac adaptations to athletic training in a similar manner to human athletes and is a naturally occurring model for the Athletes Heart.
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: 161 Source Type: research
In conclusion, farnesol has antiarrhythmic effect mediated by reducing of ICa,L and IK along with a decrease of reactive oxygen species production and normalized Ca2+ sparks and waves. PMID: 31233746 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundEnhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a multimodal perioperative care pathway designed to achieve early recovery by preserving preoperative organ function and minimizing the stress response following surgery. Few studies have assessed the association between ERAS and postoperative cardiac complications. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of ERAS on postoperative cardiac complications.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of colorectal patients who underwent surgery at a tertiary colorectal cancer referral center was carried out. Preoperative, ...
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Objective: To report the mortality data and life expectancy of geriatric hip fracture patients who underwent nonoperative management and compare that with a matched operative cohort. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Level 1 trauma center. Patients: Geriatric (65 years of age and older) femoral neck or intertrochanteric fracture (OTA/AO 31A and 31B) patients. Intervention: Operative treatment with either arthroplasty, cannulated screws, sliding hip screw device, or cephalomedullary nail compared with nonoperative cohort. Main Outcome Measurements: In-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality. Resu...
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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