Avian Influenza Virus Isolation, Propagation, and Titration in Embryonated Chicken Eggs

Avian influenza virus and some mammalian influenza A viruses are usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, for example, swine influenza in turkey specimens. Culture is highly sensitive, but is not specific for influenza A, which may be an advantage because a sample may be screened for several agents at once. Once an agent is isolated in culture, the presence of influenza viruses is confirmed with any of several assays. The methods for propagating virus isolates in ECE are described.
Source: Springer protocols feed by Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

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The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the PA subunit on the replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV. By reverse genetics, a reassortant rSD01-PA was derived from the H9N2 subtype AIV A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) by introducing the PA gene from the pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus A/swine/Shandong/07/2011 (SD07). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and guinea pigs were selected as the animal models for replication and aerosol transmission studies. Results show that rSD01-PA lost the ability of airborne transmission among SPF chickens because of the single substitution of the PA...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 2019. This five-page report is based on data on zoonotic influenza for 2017 retrieved from Epidemic Intelligence on May 18, 2018. No human cases of avian influenza were reported in the European Union/European Economic Area. Sporadic cases were reported from Africa and Asia. Influenza viruses A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused human cases in Switzerland and the United States. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 2019. This five-page report is based on data on zoonotic influenza for 2017 retrieved from Epidemic Intelligence on May 18, 2018. No human cases of avian influenza were reported in the European Union/European Economic Area. Sporadic cases were reported from Africa and Asia. Influenza viruses A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused human cases in Switzerland and the United States. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Abstract Although several miRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in the influenza virus replication cycle, the identification of miRNAs and mRNAs that are expressed in A549 cells infected with influenza A viruses (IAVs) from different host species has remained poorly studied. To investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with the differential expression of miRNAs during influenza A virus infection, we performed global miRNA and mRNA expression profiling in A549 cells infected with human-origin seasonal influenza A virus H3N2 (Human_Br07), swine-origin influenza A virus H1N1 (SW_3861) or avian-origin inf...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS:: People with schizophrenia report being generally willing to adopt protective measures, especially increased hand washing, during a pandemic influenza. Understanding perceived barriers may enable development of effective interventions to increase uptake of protective measures. PMID: 30501496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Australasian Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Australas Psychiatry Source Type: research
In this study, we have constructed computational models for host tropism prediction on human-adapted subtypes of influenza HA proteins using random forest. The feature vectors of the prediction models were generated based on seven physicochemical properties of amino acids from influenza sequences of three major hosts. Feature aggregation and associative rules were further applied to select top 20 features and extract host-associated physicochemical signatures on the combined model of nonspecific subtypes. The prediction model achieved high performance ( Accuracy=0.948 , Precision=0.954 , MCC=0.922 ). Support and confidence...
Source: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: J Bioinform Comput Biol Source Type: research
This study is carried out to unravel the key features of the genes encoding the matrix proteins that manoeuvre the codon usage profile in the H3N2 strains. The findings reveal differential codon choice for both matrix protein 1 and matrix protein 2. The overall codon usage bias is less pronounced in both the datasets which is evident from higher value of effective number of codons (>55). Comparison of the codon usage for both the genes under study with that of humans revealed that the viral codon usage is not fully optimized for the human host conditions. Both the genes enrolled in the study showed variation which was r...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Vladislav Victorovich Khrustalev, Tatyana Aleksandrovna Khrustaleva, Larisa Valentinovna KordyukovaAbstractThe aim of this study was to construct a vaccine peptide candidate against pandemic Influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin and to test its structure. With the help of bioinformatic algorithms we showed that the sequence encoding the second polypeptide of pandemic Influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA2) is protected from nonsynonymous mutations better than the sequence encoding its first polypeptide (HA1). With the help of secondary and ternar...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Reconstruction of the 1918 influenza virus has facilitated considerable advancements in our understanding of this extraordinary pandemic virus. However, the benefits of virus reconstruction are not limited to this one strain. Here, we provide an overview of laboratory studies which have evaluated the reconstructed 1918 virus, and highlight key discoveries about determinants of virulence and transmissibility associated with this virus in mammals. We further discuss recent and current pandemic threats from avian and swine reservoirs, and provide specific examples of how reconstruction of the 1918 pandemic v...
Source: Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Policy makers need to be cognisant of women's concerns and develop resources for both pregnant women and healthcare workers as part of both future pandemic planning and seasonal vaccination efforts. PMID: 30098979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Women Birth - Category: Midwifery Authors: Tags: Women Birth Source Type: research
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