Appositives and their aftermath: Interference depends on at-issue vs. not-at-issue status
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Brian Dillon, Charles Clifton, Shayne Sloggett, Lyn Frazier Much research has explored the degree to which not-at-issue content is interpreted independently of at-issue content, or the main assertion of a sentence (AnderBois, Brasoveanu, & Henderson, 2011; Harris & Potts, 2009; Potts, 2005; Schlenker, 2010; Tonhauser, 2011; a.o.). Building on this work, psycholinguistic research has explored the hypothesis that not-at-issue content, such as appositive relative clauses, is treated distinctly from at-issue content in online processing (Dillon, Clifton, & Frazier, 2014; Syrett & Koev, 2015). In the present paper, we explore the way in which appositive relative clauses interact with their host sentences in the course of incremental sentence comprehension. In an offline acceptability judgment, we find that appositive relative clauses contribute significantly less processing difficulty when they intervene between a filler and its gap than do superficially similar restrictive relative clauses. Results from two eye-tracking-while-reading studies suggests that recently processed restrictive relative clauses interfere to a greater degree with processes of integrating the filler at its gap site than do appositive relative clauses. Our findings suggest that the degree of interference observed during sentence processing may depend on the discourse status of potentially interfering c...
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ConclusionsA MEL‐A2 with novel composition and surface activities was efficiently produced from a novel MEL producer. This is the first report on production of MEL‐A2 as the major product and from soybean oil. The biosurfactant has potential application as a wetting agent and oil‐in‐water emulsifier. Significance and Impact of the StudyDiscovery of novel structures and novel strains is valuable for further commercial development and application of MELs. Sporisorium sp. aff. sorghi SAM20 can be considered as a potential candidate for commercial production of biosurfactants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. The phosphodiesterase VieA regulates gene expression by modifying the intracellular cyclic diguanylate pool. This article reveals the differential regulation of VieA in Vibrio cholerae O1 biotypes. Expression of VieA is repressed by the nucleoid‐associated protein H‐NS and the LysR‐type regulator LeuO in classical biotype V. cholerae, and by H‐NS and the quorum sensing regulator HapR in the El Tor biotype.
We describe approaches for back‐calculating model parameter estimates and their standard errors from available summary statistics with various techniques, including approximate Bayesian computation. We propose to use a quadratic approximation to the log‐likelihood for each historical trial based on 2 independent terms for the log mean rate and the log of the dispersion parameter. A Bayesian hierarchical meta‐analysis model then provides the posterior predictive distribution for these parameters. Simulations show this approach with back‐calculated parameter estimates results in very similar inference as using parame...