Cellular models as tools for the study of the role of alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease.

Cellular models as tools for the study of the role of alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2017 May 16;: Authors: Lázaro DF, Pavlou MAS, Outeiro TF Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are highly debilitating conditions characterised primarily by progressive neuronal loss and impairment of the nervous system. Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common of these disorders, affecting 1-2% of the population above the age of 65. Although the underlying mechanisms of PD have been extensively studied, we still lack a full understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the disease. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo models currently used are able to only partially recapitulate the typical phenotypes of the disease. Here, we review various cell culture models currently used to study the molecular basis of PD, with a focus on alpha-synuclein-associated molecular pathologies. We also discuss how different cell models may constitute powerful tools for high-throughput screening of molecules capable of modulating alpha-synuclein toxicity. PMID: 28526239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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This study aimed to verify findings in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects from the network of the European, Innovative Medicines Initiative-funded project AETIONOMY. METHODS: A total of 227 samples from the studies/centres AETIONOMY, ICEBERG, and IDIBAPS were used to analyse 21 selected immunity biomarkers in CSF. Results were compared to data of an independent cohort of 399 subjects previously published. RESULTS: Immunity markers were predominantly and reproducibly associated with pathological levels of tau isoforms, but also with amyloid levels, agi...
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research
Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been receiving increasing attention. Approximately half of patients with PD have experience PD-related pain. We investigated the effect and mechanism of acupuncture in patients with PD who have pain. PD patients with pain were divided into acupuncture group and control group. Nine patients completed acupuncture treatment; seven patients who received only an analgesic agent underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) twice. fMRI was performed to evaluate the functional connectivity of the brain regions. After treatment, a decrease in total score...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Degeneration of cholinergic systems may contribute to impairments of balance and gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) and phase 2 clinical trials have suggested that centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitors reduce falls. Here, we examined the effects of augmenting cholinergic neurotransmission on static and dynamic balance, indices of fall risk.
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), treatment of walking problems – and in particular freezing of gait (FOG) – can be very challenging [1]. Most patients continue to experience debilitating gait impairments despite optimal pharmacotherapy. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as external cueing, are therefore recognized as an element of the management of ga it impairments in PD [1]. External cues that act as temporal or spatial stimuli can help to shift from automatic control of gait towards goal-directed control of walking, thereby bypassing the defective basal ganglia circuitry.
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Track density imaging (TDI) has been proven to be a useful approach able to investigate white matter (WM) anatomical integrity in several neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and classical phenotype of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) also known as Richardson's syndrome (RS). To the best of our knowledge, no studies have assessed WM changes in PSP-predominant parkinsonism (PSP –P) patients by using a TDI approach, and no studies have explored the potential role of these changes in discriminating patients with PSP-P from those with PSP-RS and PD.
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOlder adults currently represent the fastest growing demographic of cannabis users, yet few studies have investigated the effects of cannabis use on cognitive functioning in aging. We conducted a systematic review of the recent literature examining cognitive outcomes associated with cannabis use in older adults, with and without neurocognitive disorders, to clarify the potential neuroprotective benefits or risks of cognitive decline in this population.Recent FindingsWe identified 26 studies examining cognitive outcomes associated with medical and recreational use of cannabis in healthy aging, demen...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
While forward gait performance was similar between groups, those with Essential tremor had increased turn time, a measure often associated with turning impairment. Together, these results suggest overall gait impairment in Essential tremor is more prevalent than recognized. Walking performance, both turning and forward, and sex were predictive of fall frequency. Therapeutic interventions in these populations should include both forward walking and turns to mitigate fall risk.
Source: Clinical Biomechanics - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Short communication Source Type: research
Conclusions: In the context of high judicialization, patients suffering from PD must increasingly use the judicial system to access treatment. To promote more equitable and efficient access benefit packages, developing countries must consider more thoroughly the needs of these patients. PMID: 31627711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research - Category: Health Management Tags: Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res Source Type: research
Authors: Chen A, Selvaraj S, Krishnan V, Asgari S Abstract Accurate and reliable detection of the onset of gait initiation is essential for the correct assessment of gait. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluation of the reliability and accuracy of 3 different center of pressure-based gait onset detection algorithms: A displacement baseline-based algorithm (method 1), a velocity baseline-based algorithm (method 2), and a velocity extrema-based algorithm (method 3). The center of pressure signal was obtained during 10 gait initiation trials from 16 healthy participants and 3 participants with Parkinson's disease. Int...
Source: Journal of Applied Biomechanics - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: J Appl Biomech Source Type: research
MONDAY, Oct. 21, 2019 -- Former professional soccer players have a significantly increased risk of death from brain diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, a new study finds. Former soccer players were about 3.5 times more likely to die of...
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - Category: General Medicine Source Type: news
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