Diffusion vs. linear ballistic accumulation: Different models, different conclusions about the slope of the zROC in recognition memory
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 96 Author(s): Adam F. Osth, Beatrice Bora, Simon Dennis, Andrew Heathcote The relative amount of variability in memory strength for targets vs. lures in recognition memory is commonly measured using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) procedure, in which participants are given either a bias manipulation or are instructed to give confidence ratings to probe items. A near universal finding is that targets have higher variability than lures. Ratcliff and Starns (2009) questioned the conclusions of the ROC procedure by demonstrating that accounting for decision noise within a response time model yields different conclusions about relative memory evidence than the ROC procedure yields. In an attempt to better understand the source of the discrepancy, we applied models that include different sources of decision noise, including both the diffusion decision model (DDM) and the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model, which either include or lack within-trial noise in evidence accumulation, and compared their estimates of the ratio of standard deviations to those from ROC analysis. Each method produced dramatically different estimates of the relative variability of target items, with the LBA even indicating equal variance in some cases. This stands in contrast to prior work suggesting that the DDM and LBA produce largely similar estimates of relevant model parameters, such as drift rate, boundary se...
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ConclusionsA MEL‐A2 with novel composition and surface activities was efficiently produced from a novel MEL producer. This is the first report on production of MEL‐A2 as the major product and from soybean oil. The biosurfactant has potential application as a wetting agent and oil‐in‐water emulsifier. Significance and Impact of the StudyDiscovery of novel structures and novel strains is valuable for further commercial development and application of MELs. Sporisorium sp. aff. sorghi SAM20 can be considered as a potential candidate for commercial production of biosurfactants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. The phosphodiesterase VieA regulates gene expression by modifying the intracellular cyclic diguanylate pool. This article reveals the differential regulation of VieA in Vibrio cholerae O1 biotypes. Expression of VieA is repressed by the nucleoid‐associated protein H‐NS and the LysR‐type regulator LeuO in classical biotype V. cholerae, and by H‐NS and the quorum sensing regulator HapR in the El Tor biotype.
We describe approaches for back‐calculating model parameter estimates and their standard errors from available summary statistics with various techniques, including approximate Bayesian computation. We propose to use a quadratic approximation to the log‐likelihood for each historical trial based on 2 independent terms for the log mean rate and the log of the dispersion parameter. A Bayesian hierarchical meta‐analysis model then provides the posterior predictive distribution for these parameters. Simulations show this approach with back‐calculated parameter estimates results in very similar inference as using parame...
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