What Causes Anemia?
Discussion One of the most common problems in pediatrics is anemia. It is defined as “a lower than normal value for the related measurements of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and number of red blood cells”, usually 2 standard deviations below the normal for age. Normal hematological values change with age. For a discussion of which values are used click here. The most common type of anemia in childhood is iron deficiency which is commonly caused by inadequate stores (e.g. premature infant), inadequate intake (e.g. poor nutrition) or blood loss (e.g. menses). Anemia screening is recommended at age 9-12 months, and for adolescent males and females during routine health examinations. As iron deficiency is the most common cause, often a trial of therapeutic iron (2-6 mg/kg/day of elemental iron) is started and then a complete blood count is rechecked ~ 1 month later. If iron deficiency is the cause then there should be an increase in the hemoglobin and hematocrit. If not, other causes must be sought. For a discussion of why anemias may not correct click here. History is very important to help direct the evaluation and workup. A detailed dietary history including pica or lead ingestion can give clues to a possible dietary reason for the anemia, especially iron deficiency anemia. Blood loss history including trauma, bleeding or potential occult loss from the genitourinary tract are also very helpful. Bone marrow production problems (e.g. malignancy, infectious diseases) or h...
Authors: Chen T, Gilfix B, Rivera JA, Sadeghi N, Richardson K, Hier MP, Forest VI, Fishman D, Caglar D, Pusztaszeri M, Mitmaker EJ, Payne RJ Abstract Though the current gold standard for diagnosing thyroid nodule malignancy is ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (USFNA) cytology, about 20-25% of cytological evaluations are considered indeterminate for malignancy. This limitation has led to the emergence of next-generation sequencing panels, e.g. ThyroSeq v3 (TSv3), which recognize highly-diagnostic genetic mutations of common thyroid carcinomas in FNA samples and classifies them as test-negative or test-positi...
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2020Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Afrozul Haq, Seyed E. Hasnain, Mohammed S. Razzaque
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Publication date: Available online 4 April 2020Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive GynecologyAuthor(s): Brunella Zizolfi, Virginia Foreste, Maria Chiara De Angelis, Giovanni Nazzaro, Francesco Paolo Improda, Jose Carugno, Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo
This study delves into the mechanisms by which a short period of fasting can accelerate wound healing. Fasting triggers many of the same cellular stress responses, such as upregulated autophagy, as occur during the practice of calorie restriction. It isn't exactly the same, however, so it is always worth asking whether any specific biochemistry observed in either case does in fact occur in both situations. In particular, the period of refeeding following fasting appears to have beneficial effects that are distinct from those that occur while food is restricted. Multiple forms of therapeutic fasting have been repor...
CONCLUSIONS: IgA antibodies against CD74 are not only markers of AS, but are associated with structural damage development in the sacroiliac joints and in the spine. PMID: 32242816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: In EUA, physical and mood disorders are associated with new and old inflammatory serological, clinical and imaging biomarkers. HLA-DRB1*11-positivity may be protective against these disease-related features. PMID: 32242813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: The addition of MUS to clinical evaluation of RA outpatients in remission did not prevent worsening PROs at 6 months. PMID: 32242808 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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