Identification of the neuronal suppressor of cataplexy, sudden weakening of muscle tone
Narcolepsy is a disorder caused by losing orexin neurons, marked by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, sudden weakening of muscle tone. Previously, we found two kinds of neurons preventing narcolepsy by receiving information from orexin neurons. Here, we have discovered that serotonin neuron, one of the two neurons above, inhibits cataplexy by reducing the amygdala activity, which controls emotion. Current discovery should lead to comprehension of the narcolepsy mechanism and to therapy development for cataplexy.
ABSTRACT We studied multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele and compared them with MS patients who did not carry the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele. We analyzed clinical and neurophysiological criteria for narcolepsy in six MS patients with HLA-DQB1*06:02, compared with 12 MS patients who were HLA-DQB1*06:02 non-carriers. Only two patients with HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele scored higher than 10 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Polysomnography recording parameters and the multiple sleep latency test showed an absence of narcolepsy in the study group. Our study suggested no significant correlation between narcolepsy,...
An increased incidence of narcolepsy was seen in many countries after the pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination campaign in 2009-2010. The H1N1 vaccine - narcolepsy connection is based on observational studies that are prone to various biases, e.g. confounding by H1N1 infection, and ascertainment, recall and selection biases. A direct pathogenic link has, however, remained elusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze the magnitude of H1N1 vaccination related risk and to examine if there was any association with H1N1 infection itself.
The comprehensive management of chronic disorders such as hypersomnias of childhood requires combining life-style changes with rational pharmacotherapy that is based on treating the symptoms that are most bothersome, the age, comorbidities, and metabolic and endocrine status of the patient. The excessive sleepiness of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia is best treated with dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate preparations or modafinil / armodafinil. Cataplexy treatment requires sodium oxybate, tricyclic agents, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
To identify improvements in daytime sleepiness following adenotonsillectomy in children with non-severe obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy.
PMID: 28623528 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Unlike other reviews written on this topic, the focus of this article is primarily on nonpharmacologic treatments for daytime sleepiness that is not secondary to other medical or psychological conditions. In order to provide an appropriate background on primary excessive daytime sleepiness, what is considered optimal sleep in terms of sleep duration, sleep insufficiency, and sleep need is discussed in detail. This discussion is followed by an examination of the behavioral strategy of banking sleep. After briefly discussing behavioral interventions for sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, a new behavioral method of treati...
Orexin is a neuropeptide that plays a key role in maintaining a state of arousal, and possibly associates with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Reduced orexin immunoreactivity has been reported in various neurologic conditions such as narcolepsy, Alzheimer ’s disease, Lewy body disease and multiple system atrophy (MSA); however, there has been no report investigating orexin in Perry syndrome, a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease characterized by four clinical cardinal signs (parkinsonism, depression/apathy, weight loss, and central hypoventil ation).
This article reviews structural and functional brain imaging findings in narcolepsy and Kleine-Levin syndrome. Based on the current state of research, brain imaging is a useful tool to investigate and understand the neuroanatomic correlates and brain abnormalities of narcolepsy and other hypersomnia.
Projects at the famed biologist’s lab include DNA data storage and resurrecting the woolly mammoth -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com