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Identification of the neuronal suppressor of cataplexy, sudden weakening of muscle tone

Narcolepsy is a disorder caused by losing orexin neurons, marked by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, sudden weakening of muscle tone. Previously, we found two kinds of neurons preventing narcolepsy by receiving information from orexin neurons. Here, we have discovered that serotonin neuron, one of the two neurons above, inhibits cataplexy by reducing the amygdala activity, which controls emotion. Current discovery should lead to comprehension of the narcolepsy mechanism and to therapy development for cataplexy.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Purpose of review: Summarize the recent findings in narcolepsy focusing on the environmental and genetic risk factors in disease development. Recent findings: Both genetic and epidemiological evidence point towards an autoimmune mechanism in the destruction of orexin/hypocretin neurons. Recent studies suggest both humoral and cellular immune responses in the disease development. Summary: Narcolepsy is a severe sleep disorder, in which neurons producing orexin/hypocretin in the hypothalamus are destroyed. The core symptoms of narcolepsy are debilitating, extreme sleepiness, cataplexy, and abnormalities in the structure of...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian J. Williams Source Type: research
AbstractNarcolepsy is a rare disease that entails excessive daytime sleepiness, often associated with sudden episodes of muscle weakness known as cataplexy. Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is due to the loss of hypothalamic neurons that release the neuropeptides orexin A and B. Orexin neuron projections prominently target brain structures involved in wake-sleep state switching and the central autonomic network. This review provides an updated summary of the links between NC and autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction from a translational perspective. The available evidence suggests that, compared with control subjects, the hea...
Source: Clinical Autonomic Research - Category: Research Source Type: research
Sodium oxybate, the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), is a safe and effective treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. Other case reports have described acute psychosis in narcoleptic patients shortly after starting or increasing the dose of sodium oxybate. Here we report the case o f a 22-year-old woman with narcolepsy who developed acute psychosis after restarting sodium oxybate at a previously well-tolerated dose. This case highlights the importance of titrating sodium oxybate to therapeutic doses, even after short-term discontinuation, in order to avoid psychiatric side eff ects.
Source: Psychosomatics - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Source Type: research
/Background: Cataplexy is the pathognomonic symptom of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). Since it is considered difficult to be directly observed or documented by clinicians, its diagnosis relies mainly on history taking. Our study aimed at testing the feasibility of a standardized video recording procedure under emotional stimulation to document cataplexy in the diagnostic work-up of suspected hypersomnia of central origin.
Source: Sleep Medicine - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
To assess the effects of three narcolepsy treatment modalities on sleep stage shifts associated with disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) using data from a clinical trial.
Source: Sleep Medicine - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
The company also obtained the U.S. rights to a narcolepsy drug from a French pharmaceutical developer.
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care News Headlines - Category: Health Management Authors: Source Type: news
Title: Narcolepsy (Definition, Symptoms, Treatment, Medication)Category: Diseases and ConditionsCreated: 3/4/2002 12:00:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 10/2/2017 12:00:00 AM
Source: MedicineNet Sleep General - Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: news
Summary Effectiveness and side‐effect profile data on pharmacotherapy for daytime sleepiness in central hypersomnias are based largely upon randomized controlled trials. Evidence regarding the use of combination therapy is scant. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness and occurrence of drug‐related side effects of these drugs in routine clinical practice. Adult patients diagnosed with a central hypersomnia during a 54‐month period at a tertiary sleep disorders centre were identified retrospectively. Side effects were recorded at every follow‐up visit. A total of 126 patients, with 3275 patient‐mon...
Source: Journal of Sleep Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Regular Research Paper Source Type: research
ABSTRACT The psychologist, Alfred Binet, who worked under the supervision of Prof. Charcot at the end of the 19th century, made several important contributions to neuropsychology, in partnership with Th éodore Simon. Most notable among these was the development of intelligence testing scales.RESUMO Alfred Binet, psic ólogo, que trabalhou sob a supervisão do professor Charcot, no final do século XIX, tem várias importantes contribuições na área de neuro-psicologia, particularmente a criação de escalas com testes de inteligência, com a participa&cced...
Source: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether damage to the hypothalamus due to craniopharyngioma or consequent surgery may involve the sleep-wake regulatory system, resulting in sleep disturbances and sleepiness. METHODS: Seven craniopharyngioma patients and 10 healthy controls were evaluated with sleep questionnaires including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, polysomnography, and a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Five patients and eight controls had lumbar puncture performed to determine hypocretin-1 levels. RESULTS: Patients tended to feel sleepier than control individuals of the...
Source: Sleep and Breathing - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Tags: Sleep Breath Source Type: research
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