Endoscopic Treatment of an Adult with Tegmental Astrocytoma Accompanied by Cerebrospinal Fluid Dissemination.

We describe here a woman, in whom magnetic resonance imaging scans showed hydrocephalus and a tegmental lesion in the upper aqueduct. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy were performed; during surgery, a second small lesion was observed in the infundibular recess. Histologically, the two lesions had the characteristics of low grade astrocytoma, suggesting that the midbrain astrocytoma may have been disseminated via the cerebral spinal fluid to the infundibular recess. Postoperatively this patient received radiotherapy for nearly one month. Although patients with these tumors are not usually administered adjunctive therapy, radiation and, combined modality therapy, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, may be beneficial in patients with midbrain gliomas with dissemination. PMID: 28490167 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Korean Neurosurg Soc Source Type: research

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Authors: Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Franz DN Abstract Introduction: Subependymal ependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) occur almost exclusively in the setting of tuberous sclerosis (TSC). They are low-grade gliomas which typically produce clinical symptoms through either mass effect or hydrocephalus. As do other manifestations of tuberous sclerosis, these lesions result from mutations in either the TSC1 or the TSC2 gene. These mutations cause hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). In view of their tendency to grow slowly, clinical symptoms usually only occur when the tumors reach a considerable...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
AbstractNeurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that presents with variable phenotypes as a result of mutations in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene and subsequently, abnormal function of the protein product, neurofibromin. Patients with NF1 are at increased risk for central nervous system (CNS) manifestations including structural, functional, and neoplastic disease. The mechanisms underlying the varied manifestations of NF1 are incompletely understood, but the loss of functional neurofibromin, resulting in sustained activation of the oncoprotein RAS, is responsible for tumorigenesis throu...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We have validated a classification algorithm based on simple, reproducible neuroimaging metrics and patient age that demonstrates a moderate prediction accuracy of 1p/19q-codeletion status among IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas.
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Analysis of this case series shows that a major subpopulation of tectal gliomas show progression and malignant transformation in children as well as in adolescents. These tumors therefore cannot be considered inert lesions and require histological confirmation and close follow-up. Quality-of-life questionnaires show that tectal glioma patients might benefit from special psychological support in emotional, social, and cognitive functionality. PMID: 29852760 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Neurosurg Focus Source Type: research
This study aimed to identify the imaging parameters that can be used to differentiate PA from HGG.MethodsAltogether, 60 patients with PAs and 138 patients with HGGs were included in the study. Tumor properties and the presence of hydrocephalus, peritumoral edema, and dissemination were evaluated. We also measured the maximum relative cerebral blood flow (rCBFmax) and volume (rCBVmax) and determined the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) in the tumor ’s solid components. The relative T1 (rT1), T2 (rT2), and contrast-enhanced T1 (rCE-T1) intensity values were evaluated. Parameters were compared between PAs...
Source: Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Intracerebral OPG hemorrhages have a fatal outcome in 20% of cases. Age, hormonal status, neurofibromatosis involvement, and histopathological diagnosis have been suggested as risk factors for hemorrhage, but this cannot be reliably established from the present series. The goals of surgery should be patient survival and prevention of further neurological and ophthalmological deterioration. PMID: 29424646 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
Authors: Aihara Y, Chiba K, Eguchi S, Amano K, Kawamata T Abstract Optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas (OP/HGs) are rare astrocytic tumors that appear more commonly among young children and often are unresectable. They comprise approximately 2% of all central nervous system tumors and account for 3-5% of pediatric intracranial tumors. Initial manifestations are often visual disturbances, endocrinopathies and hypothalamic dysfunction such as the diencephalic syndrome, and sometimes hydrocephalus due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow obstruction. In many cases, the tumors are diagnosed late in the clinical course b...
Source: Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) Source Type: research
AbstractA 5-year-old boy underwent biopsy of an intra-axial calcified tumor in the hypothalamus, which was incidentally found. Based on the presence of ganglion-like cells combined with glial cell element, the pathological diagnosis was ganglioglioma. Because the tumor grew gradually in size over the next 2  years, he underwent chemotherapy with temozolomide. However, at 8 years of age, the boy developed hydrocephalus and the cystic lesion had re-grown. Endoscopic cyst fenestration and tumor biopsy was performed, and pathological diagnosis was tentatively oligodendroglioma based on the presence of tu mor cells wi...
Source: Brain Tumor Pathology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Compared to PFT patients treated with surgery alone, PFT patients treated with chemo-radiotherapy showed lower hippocampal volumes and altered hippocampal growth trajectory. Serial quantitative MRI measures of brain may provide a neuroanatomical substrate for assessing functional impact on normal brain function following treatment of posterior fossa tumours. PMID: 28748803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: PA rarely presents as an intraventricular tumor and should be included in the differential diagnosis of a large mass with massive intratumoral calcification. PMID: 28680735 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research
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