Effects of experimental traumatic brain injury and impaired glutamate transport on cortical spreading depression.

Effects of experimental traumatic brain injury and impaired glutamate transport on cortical spreading depression. Exp Neurol. 2017 May 04;: Authors: Hosseini-Zare MS, Gu F, Abdulla A, Powell S, Žiburkus J Abstract Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, migraines, and seizures. Typically, following TBIs and other insults, neuronal excitability in and around the area of the injury is affected, with reported increases in local glutamate signaling. Astrocytic glutamate transporters are critical for precise regulation of the extracellular glutamate availability. However, it remains unclear how impaired astrocytic glutamate transport or an acute TBI affect characteristics of the CSD. We quantified the properties of CSD using whole-cell and extracellular electrophysiological recordings, and voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) in rat visual cortex in vitro. To model impaired astrocytic glutamate transport, we used astrocytic glutamate transporter blocker (2S, 3S)-3-[3-[4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoylamino] benzyloxy] aspartate (TFB-TBOA). In addition, an acute incision through the superficial cortical layers was used to model the effects of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) on CSD characteristics. Both manipulations; impaired glutamate cycling and acute cut profoundly affected the physiological properties of cell firing, latency to CSD formation, and its frequency of occurrence. VSD imaging analysis revealed s...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Jingxi Ma, Peifeng Qiao, Qin Li, Yangyang Wang, Lan Zhang, Liang-Jun Yan, Zhiyou CaiAbstractThe Food and Drug Administration has approved vagus-nerve stimulation (VNS) for the treatment of patients with epilepsy, depression, and headache. By targeting diverse neuroprotective and neuroplasticity pathways, VNS has the potential to be expanded as a treatment for ischemic stroke. VNS has been found to attenuate infarct volume, reduce neurological deficits, and improve memory and cognition in rats with stroke injuries. Some pilot stu...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor (PAC1R, ADCYAP1R1) is a member of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/secretin/glucagon family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). PAC1R has been shown to play crucial roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The activation of PAC1R initiates diverse downstream signal transduction pathways, including adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C, MEK/ERK and Akt pathways that regulate a number of physiological systems to maintain functional homeostasis. Accordingly, at times of tissue injury or insult, PACAP/PAC...
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
DiscussionWhich subacute STEMI should go to the cath lab?Simplified:IF there is subacute STEMI by ECG or other criteria AND:1. Symptoms onset is within 48 hours AND2. There are persistent symptoms OR persistent ST ElevationThen the patient should go for emergent angiogram/PCI.I think it makes sense to extend this beyond 48 hours because ischemia can be so intermittent.Schomig et al. randomized patients with:STEMI12-48 hours of symptomsNo persistent symptomsPersistent ST ElevationNo hemodynamic or electrical instability, no pulmonary edemaThe patients who received emergent PCI had significantly smaller median left ventricul...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
Abstract Background: Chronic migraine with medication overuse headache (CM-MOH) is the most common type of chronic migraine, and it increases risk of stroke and white matter lesions. These pathologic changes could induce cognitive decline. However, the alteration of cognitive function in CM-MOH patients is not established. Therefore, we took this study to reveal the cognitive performances in CM-MOH. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and January 2017. Patients were divided into CM-MOH, CMwoMOH (chronic migraine without medication overuse), and MO (migraine without aura) gr...
Source: Pain Research and Management - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Pain Res Manag Source Type: research
AbstractCathepsin-A-related arteriopathy with strokes and leukoencephalopathy (CARASAL) is an acronym that describes an ultra-rare, hereditary, cerebral small vessel disease. The aim is to summarize current knowledge and recent findings concerning phenotype, genotype, pathogenesis, diagnoses, and treatment options of CARASAL. The method used in the study is a systematic literature review. CARASAL is clinically characterized by a wide range of predominantly central nervous system abnormalities. These include migraine, stroke with central facial palsy, facial pain, non-positional vertigo, cognitive dysfunction with impaired ...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Many of us have a narrow view of therapy. We think it’s solely for navigating clinical depression or severe anxiety or roller-coaster moods. We think it’s only an option when we’re going through a major crisis, a big transition, or a prolonged, persistent period of grief. We think therapy is only an option when relationships become disconnected, and marriages are on the brink of divorce. While therapy is important and vital for all the above, it’s also helpful for a lot of other reasons, and you don’t have to wait until the walls are falling down to work with a clinician. You can go when the p...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: General Habits Happiness Health-related Mental Health and Wellness Psychotherapy Stigma Success & Achievement Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of evidence relating to the effect of interventions on our primary outcome of functional ability in activities of daily living. There is limited low-quality evidence that compensatory scanning training may be more beneficial than placebo or control at improving quality of life, but not other outcomes. There is insufficient evidence to reach any generalised conclusions about the effect of restitutive interventions or substitutive interventions (prisms) as compared to placebo, control, or no treatment. There is low-quality evidence that prisms may cause minor adverse events. PMID: 31120142 [...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Abstract Migraine, an extremely disabling neurological disorder, has a strong genetic component. Since monogenic migraines (resulting from mutations or changes in a single gene) may help researchers discover migraine pathophysiology, transgenic mice models harboring gene mutations identified in familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) patients have been generated. Studies in these FHM mutant mice models have shed light on the mechanisms of migraine and may aid in the identification of novel targets for treatment. More specifically, the studies shed light on how gene mutations, hormones, and other factors impact the path...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research
Conclusion: The Turkish version of Neuro-QoL-Stigma has satisfactory content validity and high internal consistency. Neuro-QoLStigma is suitable for understanding stigmatization in different neurological disorders in the Turkish population. The scale is available for use at http://www.healthmeasures.net/explore-measurement-systems/neuro-qol. PMID: 31023004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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