Cryptosporidium genotypes and associated risk factors in a cohort of Egyptian children

AbstractCryptosporidium is one of the most common, worldwide diarrheal diseases caused by parasites. Due to absence of an effective treatment, determining the prevailing species ofCryptosporidium is a key in identifying its transmission dynamics and a necessary precursor required for the planning and implementation of effective preventive and control strategies. This PCR-RFLP study was done to determine the prevalence ofCryptosporidium species in the stool of a cohort of Egyptian children and evaluate/assess associated risk factors for susceptibility to cryptosporidiosis, due to the lack of existent studies addressingCryptosporidium transmission dynamics in humans and assessed risk factors in Egypt. Stool samples were collected from 431 children; 331 diarrheic and 100 apparently healthy non-diarrheic children; their data were recorded. Samples were processed for Copro-nPCR targeting Hsp90 gene and PCR-RFLP analysis for species identification. Variables which showed statistical significance forCryptosporidium were included in a logistic regression analysis to identify the estimated risk. Out of 84 (19.5%)Cryptosporidium-positive samples (78 diarrheic and 6 non-diarreic), 75 (89.3%) wereCryptosporidium hominis, 6 (7.1%) wereCryptosporidium parvum, and 3 (3.6%) were non-typed. There was a significant association betweenCryptosporidium detection in stool and the estimated risk factors: diarrhea, soft stool, and drinking from tap water.Cryptosporidium is an indigenous, prevailing ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research

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In this study we analyze the distribution of apicomplexans across a range of both host-associated and free-living environments. Using publicly available small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene databases, high-throughput environmental sequencing (HTES) surveys, and our own generated HTES data, we developed an apicomplexan reference database, which includes the largest apicomplexan SSU rRNA tree available to date and encompasses comprehensive sampling of this group and their closest relatives. This tree allowed us to identify and correct incongruences in the molecular identification of apicomplexan sequences. Analyzing the diversity a...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Cryptosporidium parvum is a globally distributed zoonotic protozoan parasite of both medical and veterinary importance. Nitazoxanide is the only FDA-approved drug to treat cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent people, but it is not fully effective. There is no drug approved by FDA for use in immunocompromised patients or in animals. In the present study, we conducted phenotypic screening of 800 nature products with defined chemical structures for potential novel activity against the growth of C. parvum in vitro. We identified a large number of compounds showing low to sub-micromolar anti-cryptosporidial activity, and fully ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract With the rise of global migration, international trade, and global environmental challenges such as climate change, it is not surprising that the interactions between humans and other animals are shifting. Salient infectious diseases, such as malaria and HIV (which have high burdens of disease), attract sophisticated public health frameworks and funding from global/regional organisations, such as the WHO. This unfortunately detracts attention from the many emerging zoonoses that fall under the radar as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). This review considers the available literature and the attribution o...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Trop Med Infect Dis Source Type: research
This study reports for the first time the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Salmo trutta. A total number of 613 brown trout was captured by local anglers in 44 Galician rivers within 10 river basins (NW Spain) during the 2015 fishing season (March-August) and classified into groups according to their size. The gastrointestinal tracts were dissected and differentiated in pyloric ceca and intestine, which were homogenized and concentrated in phosphate-buffered saline 0.04 M pH 7.2/diethyl ether (2:1). Cryptosporidium oocysts were observed by immunofluorescence microscopy in 103 of 613 specimens (16.8%), w...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
ou KT Abstract Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by species in the genus Cryptosporidium. In young ruminants, Cryptosporidium parvum causes economically significant disease with mild to severe clinical signs and occasional death. The typical clinical course in animals aged 1 to 3 weeks old is acute diarrhoea. Currently there are no available treatments that are fully effective against cryptosporidiosis in either humans or animals. Therefore there is a critical need for the development of new therapeutic agents. We adapted two in vitro culture systems (HCT-8 and Caco-2 cell lines) for C. parvum infecti...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
[Cryptosporidiosis and "One Health"]. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 2018 Jan-Feb;20(1):138-143 Authors: Hernández-Gallo N, Hernández-Flórez LJ, Cortés-Vecino JA Abstract Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease (zoonotic) caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium, which infects the intestine. It occurs in humans and in different pets, farm and wild animals. Its role is underestimated and little is known about its epidemiology, due to the low interest it draws and the limited availability of diagnostic methods. The population health, both human and animal, is related to ...
Source: Revista de Salud Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCryptosporidium is an intestinal apicomplexan recently classified as a gregarine. It is associated with diarrhea both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Direct person-to-person, zoonotic, and waterborne are the principal transmission routes. Despite the significant impact on public health of cryptosporidiosis, especially in developing countries, there are few studies on this parasitic disease. This systematic review will focus on the cryptosporidiosis situation in Colombia, describing the prevalence data on humans, other animals, and environmental sources. Species and subtypes, risk...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
In this study, we assessed the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium in sheep from 10 provinces in China. Faecal samples from 1035 sheep originating from 16 farms were collected and 295 (28.5%) were found to be Cryptosporidium positive by nested PCR. Cryptosporidium was detected at all farms, with infection rates between 5.7% and 50.0%. Three Cryptosporidium species were identified, including Cryptosporidium xiaoi (73.2%, 216/295), Cryptosporidium ubiquitum (21.7%, 64/295), and Cryptosporidium parvum (5.1%, 15/295). The distribution of Cryptosporidium species differed by province and by farm. All three ...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCryptosporidium is an intestinal apicomplexan recently classified as a gregarine. It is associated with diarrhea both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Direct person-to-person, zoonotic, and waterborne are the principal transmission routes. Despite the significant impact on public health of cryptosporidiosis, especially in developing countries, there are few studies on this parasitic disease. This systematic review will focus on the cryptosporidiosis situation in Colombia, describing the prevalence data on humans, other animals, and environmental sources. Species and subtypes, risk...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
This study was devoted to determine the prevalence and the genetic diversity ofCryptosporidium spp. in symptomatic hospitalized patients and in two children populations with different socio-economic level in North-Lebanon, as well as the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis.Fecal samples obtained from these populations were examined microscopically by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining as well as nested PCR were done for the detection ofCryptosporidium oocysts.Out of 163 symptomatic hospitalized patients and 249 children,Cryptosporidium was present in 11% and 10.4% respectively according to microscopy examination an...
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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