The valproic acid-induced rodent model of autism.

The valproic acid-induced rodent model of autism. Exp Neurol. 2017 May 01;: Authors: Nicolini C, Fahnestock M Abstract Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction and by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities. While autism has a strong genetic component, environmental factors including toxins, pesticides, infection and drugs are known to confer autism susceptibility, likely by inducing epigenetic changes. In particular, exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been demonstrated to increase the risk of autism in children. Furthermore, rodents prenatally exposed to this drug display behavioral phenotypes characteristics of the human condition. Indeed, animal studies have shown that in utero exposure to VPA of rodents represents a robust model of autism exhibiting face, construct and predictive validity. This model might better represent the many cases of idiopathic autism which are of environmental/epigenetic origins than do transgenic models carrying mutations in single autism-associated genes. The VPA model provides a valuable tool to investigate the neurobiology underlying autistic behavior and to screen for novel therapeutics. Here we review the VPA-induced rodent model of autism, highlighting its importance and reliability as an environmentally-induced animal model of autism. PMID: 28472621 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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Abstract Single prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in rodents is a widely used preclinical model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Continuous prenatal VPA exposure has been recently proposed as a new ASD model that closely captures the neuropathological features of ASD, including increases in cerebral cortex volume and the number of cortical upper layer neurons. We investigated the influence of prenatal VPA exposure on the behavior of adult offspring of pregnant dams that received intraperitoneal injections of VPA twice on one day during the genesis of cortical upper layer neurons. Mice exposed to VPA at E1...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution and maternal diabetes may affect common biological pathways underlying adverse neurodevelopmental effects. However, joint effects of maternal diabetes and air pollution on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether prenatal and early-life air pollution exposure interacts with maternal diabetes status to affect ASD risk. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 246,420 singleton children born in Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals in 1999-2009. Children were followed from birth until age 5, during wh...
Source: Environment International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur results showed that postnatal low-dose MK-801 improved ASD-associated behaviors in the VPA-treated rats and that early exposure to NMDA antagonist resulted in permanent changes in adult behavior.
Source: Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
THURSDAY, Oct. 3, 2019 -- Many pregnant women suffer from morning sickness early in pregnancy. But a new study suggests that a small minority who suffer a more severe form of the illness may be at higher odds of having a child with autism. The form...
Source: - Daily MedNews - Category: General Medicine Source Type: news
We read with great interest the umbrella review of Dragioti et al in this issue of JAMA Psychiatry that evaluated 45 nonoverlapping meta-analyses of observational studies examining potential adverse health effects of antidepressant agents. In this review, the authors report that there is “convincing evidence” of 2 associations: (1) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were associated with increased risk of suicide attempt or completion in children and adolescents, and (2) SSRI or antidepressant use during pregnancy was associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). L ike the authors, we believe that...
Source: JAMA Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract DOHaD (the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) promises a greater understanding of early development but has left unresolved the balance of risks and benefits to offspring of medication use during pregnancy. Masarwa et al. (Am J Epi 2018;187(8):1817-1827) conducted a meta-analysis of the association between in utero acetaminophen exposure and risks for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A challenge of meta-analyzing results from observational studies is that summary measures of risk do not correspond to welldefined interventions when the individual...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects more boys than girls. Recent animal studies found that early life exposure to ambient particles caused autism-like behaviors only in males. However, there has been little study of sex-specificity of effects on ASD in humans. We evaluated ASD risk associated with prenatal and first year of life exposures to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) by child sex. This retrospective cohort study included 246,420 singleton children born in Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) hospitals between 1999 and 2009. The cohort was followed ...
Source: Environmental Pollution - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Pollut Source Type: research
Conclusions:Given that, increasing the age of marriage in Iran and recent trend towards delayed  childbearing; children born to older parents are at a higher risk for having ASD. So, increasing the  public awareness is necessary.Keywords:Autism spectrum disorder, mass screening, parent
Source: International Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Abstract This is a study of water and beverages consumed during pregnancy by mothers of children with autism. Materials included vials for water samples and a survey to describe the water and beverages. Samples were tested for sulfate and surveys evaluated for average daily levels. Results were stratified for selected regions of the United States. Areas with the highest rates of autism showed a trend toward lower levels of sulfate compared to areas with low rates of autism (28% sulfate, n = 45, p = 0.059). Severe autism was associated with low sulfate levels while mild symptoms were ass...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
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Source: OnMedica Latest News - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
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