No prediction error cost in reading: Evidence from eye movements
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Steven Frisson, David R. Harvey, Adrian Staub Two eye movement while reading experiments address the issue of how reading of an unpredictable word is influenced by the presence of a more predictable alternative. The experiments replicate the robust effects of predictability on the probability of skipping and on early and late reading time measures. However, in both experiments, an unpredictable but plausible word was read no more slowly when another word was highly predictable (i.e., in a constraining context) than when no word was highly predictable (i.e., in a neutral context). In fact, an unpredictable word that was semantically related to the predictable alternative demonstrated facilitation in the constraining context, in relatively late eye movement measures. These results, which are consistent with Luke and Christianson’s (2016) corpus study, provide the first evidence from a controlled experimental design for the absence of a prediction error cost, and for facilitation of an unpredictable but semantically related word, during normal reading. The findings support a model of lexical predictability effects in which there is broad pre-activation of potential continuations, rather than discrete predictions of specific lexical items. Importantly, pre-activation of likely continuations does not result in processing difficulty when some other word is actually encountered.
Edgardo Sepulveda, Andrei N. Lupas
Cory Schwartz, Keith Frogue, Joshua Misa, Ian Wheeldon
Carole Pfister, St éphane Bourque, Odile Chatagnier, Annick Chiltz, Jérôme Fromentin, Diederik Van Tuinen, Daniel Wipf, Nathalie Leborgne-Castel
Xue-Ying Tian, Cheng-Sheng Zhang
Guangshan Yao, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Xiuna Wang, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
Hany S. Zinad, Inas Natasya, Andreas Werner
Majdiah Othman, Arbakariya B. Ariff, Leonardo Rios-Solis, Murni Halim
ConclusionsA MEL‐A2 with novel composition and surface activities was efficiently produced from a novel MEL producer. This is the first report on production of MEL‐A2 as the major product and from soybean oil. The biosurfactant has potential application as a wetting agent and oil‐in‐water emulsifier. Significance and Impact of the StudyDiscovery of novel structures and novel strains is valuable for further commercial development and application of MELs. Sporisorium sp. aff. sorghi SAM20 can be considered as a potential candidate for commercial production of biosurfactants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. The phosphodiesterase VieA regulates gene expression by modifying the intracellular cyclic diguanylate pool. This article reveals the differential regulation of VieA in Vibrio cholerae O1 biotypes. Expression of VieA is repressed by the nucleoid‐associated protein H‐NS and the LysR‐type regulator LeuO in classical biotype V. cholerae, and by H‐NS and the quorum sensing regulator HapR in the El Tor biotype.
We describe approaches for back‐calculating model parameter estimates and their standard errors from available summary statistics with various techniques, including approximate Bayesian computation. We propose to use a quadratic approximation to the log‐likelihood for each historical trial based on 2 independent terms for the log mean rate and the log of the dispersion parameter. A Bayesian hierarchical meta‐analysis model then provides the posterior predictive distribution for these parameters. Simulations show this approach with back‐calculated parameter estimates results in very similar inference as using parame...