Decreasing Pica Attempts by Manipulating the Environment to Support Prosocial Behavior

AbstractIt is well established in the literature that pica displayed by individuals with developmental disabilities is most likely to be maintained by automatic reinforcement. However, there is a need for additional research regarding interventions that emphasize skill acquisition by teaching individuals with automatically maintained pica, multiple alternative behaviors to reduce the occurrence of this behavior. For the current study, pica emitted by three participants with developmental disabilities was targeted for assessment and treatment. Results of a functional behavioral assessment, which included a functional analysis, showed each participant ’s pica was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Treatment was individualized for each participant, but primarily focused on response interruption and redirection, as well as differentially reinforcing alternative behaviors such as discarding and vacuuming potential pica items. After thinning th e schedule of reinforcement for each participant, treatment was generalized across settings and people. Overall, low rates of pica were maintained over time for all participants.
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research

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Authors: Li S, Ou Y, Li C, Wei W, Lei L, Zhang Q Abstract Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has a high rate of disability and mortality. Although secondary SCI results in local tissue hypoxia and the release of inflammatory mediators, it is both controllable and reversible. Therefore, timely rehabilitation treatment is beneficial for the partial recovery of patients with SCI. The present study aimed to investigate the use of methylprednisolone combined with high-frequency electrotherapy as a method of rehabilitation treatment in rats with SCI. The rat SCI model was prepared using the modified Allen's method with the a...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Medicine and Life - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Med Life Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Broadhead DY, Douglas HE, Bezjian Wallace LM, Wallace PJ, Tamura S, Morgan KC, Hemler DE Abstract Back pain and its associated complications are of increasing importance among military members. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a common source of chronic low back pain (LBP) and functional disability. Many patients suffering from chronic LBP utilize opioids to help control their symptoms. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used extensively to treat pain emanating from many different musculoskeletal origins; however, its use in the SIJ has been studied only on a limited basis. The patient in this case report pr...
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
Authors: Eller M, Goadsby PJ Abstract Migraine affects over a billion people worldwide in any year and is the second most common cause of years lost due to disability. Not "just a headache", morbidity washes though society and carries a substantial economic and social cost. Understanding of migraine pathophysiology has progressed significantly. Animal models and functional neuroimaging have yielded significant insight into brain structures that mediate migraine symptoms. The role of small peptides as neurotransmitters within this network has been elucidated, allowing the generation of novel therapeutic ap...
Source: Medical Journal of Australia - Category: General Medicine Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research
Authors: Pogorzelski J, Fritz EM, Horan MP, Katthagen JC, Hussain ZB, Godin JA, Millett PJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite the widespread use of arthroscopic double-row transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair (RCR) techniques, midterm outcome data are limited. The purpose of this article was to assess midterm clinical outcomes of patients following arthroscopic TOE RCR using either a knotless tape bridge (TB) repair or knotted suture bridge (SB) repair technique. We hypothesized that there would be significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes with TOE RCR that would be durable over time. We also h...
Source: The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Am Acad Orthop Surg Source Type: research
Authors: Buckstein RJ Abstract Myelodysplastic syndromes are clonal myeloid neoplasms that primarily present in older adults. Although leukemia develops in approximately 25% to 30% of individuals, the significantly shortened survival in this population is attributed more commonly to nonleukemic causes. The current prognostic scoring systems for leukemia and overall survival based on disease characteristics are becoming increasingly sophisticated and accurate with the incorporation of molecular data. The addition of patient-related factors such as comorbidity, disability, frailty, and fatigue to these new models may...
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research
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Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine - Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh - Category: General Medicine Tags: J R Coll Physicians Edinb Source Type: research
Authors: Khakwani A, Gannon D Abstract A 44-year-old female, with a background of cerebral palsy, epilepsy and learning disabilities, presented with multiple seizures and a persistently reduced consciousness level secondary to valproate-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy (plasma levels>50 µg/dl). Withdrawal of valproate and subsequent infusion of L-carnitine led to full recovery. Nonhepatic hyperammonaemia has been shown to be effectively treated by intravenous L-carnitine therapy by a series of case reports. To date, no randomised controlled trials have demonstrated this. Hyperammonaemic encephalopath...
Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh - Category: General Medicine Tags: J R Coll Physicians Edinb Source Type: research
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