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Abstract PR02: Validation of breast cancer risk prediction model using Nurses Health and Nurse Health II Studies

Background: Adding genetic and other biomarkers to breast cancer risk prediction models could markedly improve model discrimination; however, these expanded models have not been validated in a range of populations. In particular, the calibration of these new models how well the predicted absolute risks match observed risks has not been established. Good calibration is essential to confirm the utility of these risk models in precision prevention and treatment programs.Large cohort studies provide an ideal setting to validate risk models, as they can be used to validate both relative and absolute risks. However, in practice, genetic and biomarker data are often not available in the full cohort, but only on a sub sample of cases and controls. When the rules for sampling cases and controls into the sub sample are known, inverse-probability-of-sampling (IPW) weights can be used to estimate empirical absolute risks. When the sampling rules are unknown or complicated, the IPW weights can be estimated by regressing selection into the sub sample on matching and other inclusion criteria.Methods: We evaluated the performance of recently published breast cancer risk prediction models [Maas et al. JAMA Oncol 2016] in the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and Nurses Health Study II (NHSII).We first assess a prediction model that only includes questionnaire data (BMI, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alcohol consumption, smoking status, height, parity, age at menarche and menopause, age at first ...
Source: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Improving Cancer Risk Prediction for Prevention and Early Detection: Oral Presentations - Proffered Abstracts Source Type: research

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Conclusions: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742 Received: 9 February 2017 Revised: 4 August 2017 Accepted: 12 August 2017 Published: 13 October 2017 Address correspondence to Z.J. Andersen, Centre for Epidemiology and Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, 1014 København K, Denmark; Telephone: 45 20740462; Email: zorana.andersen@sund.ku.dk Supplemental Material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742). The a...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Conclusions: Although further work is required to confirm our results and to clarify potential mechanisms, our findings suggest that exposure to residential outdoor light at night may contribute to invasive breast cancer risk. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP935 Received: 08 August 2016 Revised: 17 March 2017 Accepted: 20 March 2017 Published: 17 August 2017 Address correspondence to P. James, 401 Park Dr., 3rd Floor West, Boston, MA 02215 USA. Telephone: (617) 525-2567; Email: pjames@hsph.harvard.edu Supplemental Material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP935). The authors declare they have no actual or pot...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Conclusions: In this cohort of women with elevated risk, high serum 25(OH)D levels and regular vitamin D supplement use were associated with lower rates of incident, postmenopausal breast cancer over 5 y of follow-up. These results may help to establish clinical benchmarks for 25(OH)D levels; in addition, they support the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation is useful in breast cancer prevention. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP943 About This Article Received: 09 August 2016 Revised: 23 January 2017 Accepted: 06 February 2017 Published: 06 July 2017 Address correspondence to C. R. Weinberg, 111 TW Alexander Dr., Rese...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Background: Alcohol is a recognized risk factor for invasive breast cancer, but few studies involve African American women. Methods: The current analysis included 22,338 women (5,108 cases of invasive breast cancer) from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium. The association between number of alcoholic drinks per week (dpw) and breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders, and stratifying by breast cancer subtype. Results: Approximately 35% of controls were current drinkers at interview. Women who reported current drinking of ≥14 dpw had...
Source: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Purpose: To validate a simplified breast cancer incidence model using baseline risk factors in an independent datasetMethods: We restricted the study population to comparable age ranges at baseline (age 47-79) (Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 1994, n=64,627; California Teachers' Study (CTS), 1995, n=31,386)We fit simplified Rosner-Colditz (RC) log incidence models using baseline risk factors and estimated both a 14-year risk model (1994-2008, 3597 cases) and a 4-year risk model (1994-1998, 1616 cases) based on NHS data. Both the 14-year and 4-year risk models were compared with the Gail model over the same time periods in the ...
Source: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Improving Cancer Risk Prediction for Prevention and Early Detection: Oral Presentations - Invited Abstracts Source Type: research
Conclusion This study aimed to assess whether sticking to a Mediterranean diet was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women. The researchers found following a Mediterranean diet was indeed associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk – but only for ER-negative breast cancer. This study has both strengths and weaknesses. Its large, prospective design and long period of follow-up are strengths. The typical weakness of this type of study is that many factors are likely to contribute to risk, and it's very difficult to be sure the factor in question – in this case, eating a...
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Cancer Food/diet Source Type: news
Conclusion Current population risk assessment of dietary Cd intake relies on estimates of dietary Cd intake and/or maintenance of threshold levels of urinary Cd that should protect the kidney from Cd-induced damage. Risk assessment using dietary Cd intake estimates has been questioned because they show only a marginal correlation with urinary Cd levels, a well-founded measure of lifetime intakes. Blood Cd levels, however, show a correlation with urinary Cd levels, and they could thus be of value in risk assessment; blood Cd levels ≥ 1 μg/L were associated with CKD, while blood Cd levels above 0.5 μg/L were associa...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Commentaries March 2017 Source Type: research
By now, most people have been to a holiday party or two. Lots of food, lots of eggnog and other carb laden alcoholic beverages, and lots of grazing all day long on all the boxes of candy friends and business acquaintances sent to us. It's easy to gain the five pounds most people gain during the holidays, and in the process, raise your blood sugar or glucose levels too high. That's your body letting you know you have prediabetes (higher than normal but still below diabetes levels) or diabetes, and unless you take action soon, your body won't like it. Diabetes silently sneaks up on you and if untreated, slowly weakens your ...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Abstract Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combin...
Source: Med J Aust - Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research
STUDY QUESTION Can the diagnosis of common diseases before menopause influence age at natural menopause (ANM) onset? SUMMARY ANSWER Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and depression were observed to delay menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It has been observed that women who undergo early menopause experience a higher burden of health problems related to metabolic syndromes, heart disease and depression, but whether ANM can be influenced by common adult diseases has not been studied extensively. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION All women attending mammography screening or clinical mammography at four hospitals in Sweden were in...
Source: Human Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Reproductive Epidemiology Source Type: research
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